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Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19
SPOTLIGHT

Life in Lockdown: Child and adolescent mental health and well-being in the time of COVID-19

COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly disrupted the daily lives of children and adolescents, with increased time at home, online learning and limited physical social interaction. This report seeks to understand the immediate effects on their mental health. Covering more than 130,000 children and adolescents across 22 countries, the evidence shows increased stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, as well as increased alcohol and substance use, and  externalizing behavioural problems. Children and adolescents also reported positive coping strategies, resilience, social connectedness through digital media, more family time, and relief from academic stress. Factors such as demographics, relationships and pre-existing conditions are critical. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations. To ensure children and adolescents are supported, the report recommends building the evidence on the longer-term impact of the pandemic on child and adolescent mental health in low- and middle-income countries, including vulnerable populations.
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COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition
Blog Blog

COVID-19: Missing More Than a Classroom. The impact of school closures on children’s nutrition

In 2019, 135 million people in 55 countries were in food crises or worse, and 2 billion people did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food. COVID-19 has exacerbated these hardships and may result in an additional 121 million people facing acute food insecurity by the end of 2020. Further, since the beginning of the pandemic, an estimated 1.6 billion learners in 199 countries worldwide were affected by school closures, with nearly 370 million children not receiving a school meal in 150 countries. The paper presents the evidence on the potential negative short-term and long-term effects of school meal scheme disruption during Covid-19 globally. It shows how vulnerable the children participating in these schemes are, how coping and mitigation measures are often only short-term solutions, and how prioritizing school re-opening is critical. For instance, it highlights how girls are at greater risk of not being in school or of being taken out of school early, which may lead to poor nutrition and health for themselves and their children. However, well-designed school feeding programmes have been shown to enable catch-up from early growth failure and other negative shocks. As such, once schools re-open, school meal schemes can help address the deprivation that children have experienced during the closures and provide an incentive for parents to send and keep their children, especially girls, in school.
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1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and priority actions for infant and young child feeding (second edition)
1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and priority actions for infant and young child feeding (second edition)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. The Innocenti Declaration reflected both the spirit of the support that was being mobilized for breastfeeding, and the recognition of the right of the infant to nutritious food enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This publication reviews the context of the Innocenti Declaration and analyzes the achievements that have been realized towards the targets that were established in 1990. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children’s right to adequate nutrition.
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Declaración de Innocenti del 2005 sobre la alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
En los 15 años transcurridos desde la adopción de la versión original de la Declaración de Innocenti, en 1990, se ha logrado un notable progreso en lo que a mejorar las prácticas mundiales de alimentación de lactantes y niños pequeños se refiere. No obstante ello, las prácticas de alimentación inapropiadas, es decir la alimentación subóptima o la ausencia de lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria inadecuada, continúan representando la principal amenaza para la salud y la supervivencia infantil en todo el mundo. Una mejor práctica de la lactancia materna por si sola ayudaría a salvar las vidas de más de 3.500 niños y niñas por día, más que cualquier otra intervención preventiva. Guiados por principios aceptados de derechos humanos, en especial aquellos plasmados en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño, nuestra visión es crear un entorno que permita a las madres, sus familias y otras personas a cargo del cuidado de los niños realizar decisiones informadas acerca de una alimentación óptima, definida como la lactancia materna exclusiva durante seis meses con la posterior introducción de la alimentación complementaria apropiada y la lactancia materna continuada hasta los dos años de edad o más.
Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Declaration Innocenti 2005 sur l’alimentation du nourrisson et du jeune enfant
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Depuis 15 ans qu’a été adoptée la première Déclaration Innocenti, en 1990, l’alimentation des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants a fait des progrès remarquables dans le monde entier. Cependant, des pratiques alimentaires inappropriées - allaitement insuffisant ou inexistant et alimentation complémentaire inadéquate - restent dans le monde ce qui menace le plus la santé et la survie de l’enfant. Une amélioration de la pratique de l’allaitement maternel pourrait à elle seule sauver chaque jour les vies de plus de 3500 enfants, soit plus que toute autre action préventive. Conformément aux principes communément admis des droits de la personne humaine, en particulier ceux énoncés dans la Convention relative aux droits de l’enfant, notre but est de créer un environnement permettant aux mères, aux familles et aux autres personnes qui s’occupent des enfants de choisir en pleine connaissance de cause une alimentation optimale, qui est définie comme un allaitement maternel exclusif jusqu’à l’âge de six mois, suivi par l’introduction d’une alimentation complémentaire appropriée en parallèle avec la continuation de l’allaitement au sein jusqu’à l’âge de deux ans ou audelà.
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Dichiarazione degli Innocenti 2005 sull’alimentazione dei neonati e dei bambini
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
Nel 1990 con la Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno all'Allattamento Materno si è stabilita una agenda internazionale con obiettivi ambiziosi da raggiungere. Nel Novembre 2005 Firenze ha nuovamente ospitato un congresso internazionale per la celebrazione del 15mo anniversario della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti. L'anniversario è stato celebrato per: valutare i progressi fatti nella promozione, protezione e sostegno all'allattamento materno a partire dal 1990; richiamare l'attenzione dei governi, della società civile e dei donanti ad aumentare gli sforzi per l'attuazione degli obiettivi della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti e degli obiettivi addizionali stabiliti nel 2002 con la Strategia Globale per l'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino; accrescere la coscienza intorno al diritto di ogni bambino ad una alimentazione adeguata, e agli obblighi per ogni settore della società ad assicurare che questo diritto venga rispettato. La Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino riprende i rinnovati impegni presi durante questa storica celebrazione e registra i 5 obiettivi addizionali che sono stati identificati come parte della Strategia Globale in corso sull'alimentazione dell'infanzia e del bambino.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Arabic version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Chinese version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
In 1990 the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding set an international agenda with ambitious targets for action. In November 2005 Florence was again the gathering place to celebrate the 15th Anniversary of the Innocenti Declaration. The Anniversary was observed to: assess progress made in the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding since 1990; call upon governments, civil society and donors to increase efforts to implement the targets of the Innocenti Declaration and the additional targets established in 2002 within the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding; raise awareness of every child’s right to adequate nutrition, and the corresponding obligations on all sectors of society to ensure that this right is realized. The Innocenti Declaration on Infant and Young Child Feeding captures the renewed commitments made at this historic anniversary meeting and records the additional five operational targets that were identified as part of the ongoing global strategy on Infant and Young Child feeding. The Declaration was endorsed by the Standing Committee on Nutrition on 17 March, 2006 and the Call for Action made in the declaration was welcomed by the World Health Assembly on 27 May, 2006.
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Innocenti Declaration 2005 on Infant and Young Child Feeding (Russian version)
Published: 2007 Innocenti Publications
За 15 лет, прошедших с момента принятия в 1990 г. Первоначальной Инночентийской декларации, в улучшении питания детей грудного и раннего возраста во всем мире были достигнуты ощутимые успехи. Вместе с тем, неправильная практика вскармливания, не соответствующая оптимальной, или отсутствие грудного вскармливания и неадекватное дополнительное питание остаются самыми значительными угрозами здоровью и выживанию детей во всем мире. Одно лишь улучшение грудного вскармливания может спасти жизни более чем 3500 детей ежедневно, что превышает показатели любых других профилактических мер.
1990-2005 Celebrazione della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno dell'Allattamento Materno
1990-2005 Celebrazione della Dichiarazione degli Innocenti sulla Protezione, Promozione e Sostegno dell'Allattamento Materno
Published: 2006 Innocenti Publications
La presente pubblicazione intende dare maggiore visibilità all’allattamento materno e a tutti gli aspetti relativi all’alimentazione neonatale e infantile, in quanto si tratta di fattori essenziali per aumentare il tasso di sopravvivenza, crescita e sviluppo dei bambini, nonché attirare nuovamente l’attenzione di governi e donatori sul tema. Per farlo, ripercorre la serie di azioni, eventi, documenti e pratiche che dalla Dichiarazione degli Innocenti conduce alla Strategia globale per l'alimentazione del neonato e del bambino.
1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and the way forward for infant and young child feeding
1990-2005 Celebrating the Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding: Past achievements, present challenges and the way forward for infant and young child feeding
Published: 2005 Innocenti Publications
This publication is intended to raise the profile of breastfeeding and all elements of infant and young child feeding as key interventions for improving child survival, growth and development, and to bring this once again to the attention of governments and donors. In doing so it describes a chain of actions, events, documents and practices stretching forward from the Innocenti Declaration to the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. It describes the continuing and new challenges that exist to optimal feeding of infants and young children, and suggests a way forward towards the global aim of ensuring universal enjoyment of children's rights to adequate nutrition.
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Urban Jonsson

Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a background overview of the development of human nutrition as a science, together with a survey of current trends in thinking on the subject.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child nutrition, children's rights, implementation of the crc, nutrition, right to food | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
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Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic
Publication Publication

Learning at a Distance: Children’s remote learning experiences in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic

Italy was the first country in Europe to implement a nationwide lockdown. Children and their families lived in nearly complete isolation for almost two months. Students missed 65 days of school compared to an average of 27 missed days among high-income countries worldwide. This prolonged break is of concern, as even short breaks in schooling can cause significant loss of learning for children and lead to educational inequalities over time. At least 3 million Italian students may not have been reached by remote learning due to a lack of internet connectivity or devices at home. This report explores children’s and parents’ experiences of remote learning during the lockdown in Italy, drawing on data collected from 11 European countries (and coordinated by the European Commission’s Joint Research Center). It explores how children's access and use of digital technologies changed during the pandemic; highlights how existing inequalities might undermine remote learning opportunities, even among those with internet access; and provides insights on how to support children’s remote learning in the future. *** L'Italia e’ stata il primo paese in Europa ad aver applicato la misura del lockdown su tutto il territorio. I bambini e le loro famiglie hanno vissuto in quasi completo isolamento per circa due mesi. Gli studenti hanno perduto 65 giorni di scuola rispetto ad una media di 27 negli altri paesi ad alto reddito del mondo. Questa interruzione prolungata rappresenta motivo di preoccupazione, in quanto persino interruzioni piu’ brevi nella didattica possono causare significative perdite nel livello di istruzione dei ragazzi e portare col tempo a diseguaglianze educative. Almeno 3 milioni di studenti in Italia non sono stati coinvolti nella didattica a distanza a causa d una mancanza di connessione ad internet o di dispositivi adeguati a casa. Questo rapporto analizza l’esperienza della didattica a distanza di ragazzi e genitori in Italia durante il lockdown, sulla base dei dati raccolti in 11 paesi europei (e coordinati dal Centro comune di ricerca della Commissione Europea). Studia il cambiamento nell’accesso e nell’uso delle tecnologie digitali dei bambini e ragazzi durante la pandemia; mette in evidenza come le diseguaglianze esistenti possano diminuire le opportunità offerte dalla didattica a distanza, anche tra coloro che hanno accesso ad internet; e fornisce approfondimenti su come sostenere la didattica a distanza di bambini e ragazzi in futuro.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in Eastern and Southern Africa

There is a learning crisis. Fifty-three per cent of children in low- and middle-income countries are in ‘learning poverty’, i.e. they cannot read and understand a simple text by the end of primary school age. In sub- Saharan Africa, the learning poverty rate is 87 per cent overall, and ranges from 40 per cent to as high as 99 per cent in the 21 countries with available data. Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. Teacher absenteeism and reduced time on task wastes valuable financial resources, short-changes students and is one of the most cumbersome obstacles on the path toward the education Sustainable Development Goal and to the related vision of the new UNICEF education strategy: Every Child Learns. Whilst the stark numbers are available to study, and despite teacher absenteeism being a foremost challenge for education systems in Africa, the evidence base on how policies and practices can influence teacher attendance remains scant. Time to Teach (TTT) is a research initiative that looks at primary school teacher attendance in eight countries and territories in the Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) region: the Comoros; Kenya; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania, mainland; the United Republic of Tanzania, Zanzibar; and Uganda. Its primary objective is to identify factors affecting the various forms of teacher attendance, which include being at school, being punctual, being in the classroom, and teaching when in the classroom, and use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.

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