MIND THE GAP: Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Interventions – An evidence and gap map of low and middle-income countries

MIND THE GAP: Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Interventions – An evidence and gap map of low and middle-income countries

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Mental disorders affect about 1 in 7 children and adolescents worldwide, with 50% arising before the age of 14. Despite the high burden and early onset, most conditions remain unrecognized and untreated. We mapped evidence on the effectiveness of child and adolescent (ages 0-19) mental health and psychosocial support interventions in low- and middle-income countries within the last 12 years and identified 697 records from 78 countries.

The field is reactive rather than proactive, with most interventions focusing on treatment rather than promotion or prevention. Most mental health research is conducted in educational settings and focuses on early and late adolescence. Research on early childhood interventions as well as evidence to address the mental health and psychosocial needs of children in humanitarian settings are scarce.

Mental health intervention research lacks diversity: less than one third of studies and reviews focused on specific population groups. Despite the known potential for digital interventions to overcome a range of barriers, the field is understudied with very limited evidence across all outcomes. In 60 countries, no research was identified. There were also important geographical disparities and research gaps in West and Central Africa.

Disrupting Harm in Cambodia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Disrupting Harm in Cambodia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Funded by the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children, through its Safe Online initiative, ECPAT, INTERPOL, and UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti worked in partnership to design and implement Disrupting Harm – a research project on online child sexual exploitation and abuse (OCSEA). This unique partnership brings a multidisciplinary approach to a complex issue in order to see all sides of the problem. OCSEA refers to situations that involve digital or communication technologies at some point during the continuum of abuse or exploitation; it can occur fully online or through a mix of online and in-person interactions between offenders and children. The Disrupting Harm research was conducted in six Southeast Asian countries, including Cambodia, and seven Eastern and Southern African countries. Data was synthesised from nine different research activities to generate each national report. These tell the story of the threat and present clear recommendations for action.
Disrupting Harm in Indonesia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Disrupting Harm in Indonesia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Funded by the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children, through its Safe Online initiative, ECPAT International, INTERPOL and UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti worked in partnership to design and implement a multifaceted research project on online child sexual exploitation and abuse: Disrupting Harm. The research was conducted in seven Eastern and Southern African countries and six Southeast Asian countries, including Indonesia. Data are synthesised from up to nine different research activities to generate each national report which tells the story of the threat and presents clear recommendations for action.
Disrupting Harm in Malaysia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Disrupting Harm in Malaysia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Funded by the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children, through its Safe Online initiative, ECPAT International, INTERPOL and UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti worked in partnership to design and implement Disrupting Harm – a research project on online child sexual exploitation and abuse (OCSEA). This unique partnership brings a multidisciplinary approach to a complex issue in order to present multiple viewpoints around the issue of OCSEA. The research was conducted in seven Eastern and Southern African countries and six Southeast Asian countries, including Malaysia. Data are synthesised from up to nine different research activities to generate each national report which tells the story of the threat of OCSEA and the national response mechanisms in place to tackle this form of violence against children. The report ends with a set of clear recommendations for action.
Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Joint efforts by the Government of Nepal, development partners and key stakeholders to achieve SDG 4 by 2030 have improved education access, participation and retention. However, learning outcomes in Nepal remain stagnant.

What resources and contextual factors are associated with good school performance in Nepal? By merging and analyzing existing administrative datasets in Nepal, this report helps to identify positive deviant schools – those that outperform other schools despite sharing similar contexts and resources.

Data Must Speak – a global initiative implemented since 2014 – aims to address the evidence gaps to mitigate the learning crisis using existing data. The DMS Positive Deviance Research is co-created and co-implemented with Ministries of Education and key partners. DMS research relies on mixed methods and innovative approaches (i.e., positive deviance approach, behavioural sciences, implementation research and scaling science) to generate knowledge and practical lessons about ‘what works’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ to scale grassroots solutions for national policymakers and the broader international community of education stakeholders.

DMS research is currently being implemented in 14 countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Niger, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zambia.

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed internet connectivity from an important asset to an essential piece of infrastructure. Yet two thirds of the world’s school-aged children still have no fixed internet connection at home. This lack of connectivity limits their ability to go online; prevents them from participating and competing in the modern economy; and risks isolating them from the world.

This research brief presents new data on children’s internet access in five countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. It provides estimates of the frequency with which children use the internet and assesses the most common barriers they face. Finally, it explores the potential consequences of leaving these bottlenecks unaddressed.

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Ximena Jativa; Despina Karamperidou; Michelle Mills; Stefania Vindrola; Hanna Wedajo; Andrea Dsouza; Jessica Bergmann

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Teachers are the most important drivers of students’ academic achievement and they are at the heart of learning recovery efforts. Finding out the bottlenecks and necessary conditions for ensuring teachers’ presence at school and in the classroom is essential. Time to Teach is a mixed methods research initiative that aims to find out the contextual, working conditions and policy factors impeding primary school teacher attendance in 11 West and Central African countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, The Gambia, and Togo. 

The study considers teacher attendance as multi-dimensional, in four distinct forms. Teachers were asked to about their attendance in relation to: (1) being school; (2) being punctual (arriving and leaving on time); (3) being the classroom; and (4) spending sufficient time on task. Evidence is drawn from national, system-wide qualitative data collection and school observations, and a quantitative survey of 1,673 teachers working in 234 purposively selected primary schools. While primary data were collected prior to the COVID-19 school closures (in the 2018/2019 school year), the study provides important insights on how the pandemic has exacerbated chronic challenges of education systems that impact teacher attendance and is therefore informative for policy, both in the current COVID-19 era and beyond.


Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Education, WCARO | Tags: central africa, education, teachers, west africa
Disrupting Harm in Namibia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Disrupting Harm in Namibia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Funded by the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children, through its Safe Online initiative, ECPAT, INTERPOL, and UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti worked in partnership to design and implement Disrupting Harm – a research project on online child sexual exploitation and abuse (OCSEA). This unique partnership brings a multidisciplinary approach to a complex issue in order to see all sides of the problem. OCSEA refers to situations that involve digital or communication technologies at some point during the continuum of abuse or exploitation; it can occur fully online or through a mix of online and in-person interactions between offenders and children. The Disrupting Harm research was conducted in six Southeast Asian countries and seven Eastern and Southern African countries, including Namibia. Data were synthesised from nine different research activities to generate each national report which tells the story of the threat, and presents clear recommendations for action.

Key findings in the Disrupting Harm in Namibia report include:

  • ●  20,000 children experienced clear examples of online sexual exploitation and abuse in the last year alone. This included blackmailing children to engage in sexual activities, sharing their sexual images without permission, or coercing them to engage in sexual activities through promises of money or gifts.
  • ●  30% of children who had experienced abuse online did not disclose their experiences to anyone, citing fear and lack of awareness on whom or where to report to. One child said, “No, I did not [report] because I was afraid. My mom had warned me not to communicate with people I do not know on social media, so I was afraid that she would criticize me for doing that.”
  • ●  11% of children surveyed were subjected to sexual comments online that made them feel uncomfortable in the past year.
  • ●  80% of online sexual abuse and exploitation offenders were someone the child already knew. These were often intimate partners and adult friends and family members. Someone unknown to the child was responsible for about one in four instances of online child sexual exploitation and abuse identified in the household survey. 


For more information, read the Advocacy Brief.

 

Bridging the Digital Literacy Gender Gap in Developing Countries

Bridging the Digital Literacy Gender Gap in Developing Countries

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Subrahmanian; Giacomo Gattorno; Paul Grainger; Alberto Guidi; Shiva Kanwar; Mansi Kedia; Alina Sorgner

Published: 2022 Policy Brief

The record on digital inclusion is clear: women have been left behind. Within certain economies, cultures, and regions, the digital literacy gender gap prevents women from unlocking better learning opportunities and economic prospects. This policy brief measures the relationship between digital literacy gaps and sociocultural factors. It then describes why digital literacy gaps start forming in childhood and how most digital skilling programmes fail to address the obstacles women face in becoming a part of the digital world. It concludes by pinpointing solutions to these issues and urging the G20 and other countries to address the unique challenges of women’s digital literacy. 

 

Réouvrir les écoles avec résilience: Leçons tirées de l’enseignement à distance pendant la COVID-19 en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

Réouvrir les écoles avec résilience: Leçons tirées de l’enseignement à distance pendant la COVID-19 en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Valenza; Yacouba Dijbo Abdou; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
Les pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre ont mis en œuvre des mesures nationales pour poursuivre les activités d’apprentissage pendant la fermeture des écoles. Ces mesures reposaient sur une combinaison de modalités de diffusion : des plateformes en ligne, des médias audiovisuels, des téléphones portables et des supports imprimés. Cependant, plusieurs obstacles ont empêché de nombreux enfants et adolescents de la région de profiter de ces opportunités d’apprentissage, dans un contexte où, même avant la pandémie, près de 50 % d’entre eux n'atteignaient pas les compétences minimales en lecture à la fin du cycle primaire. En s’appuyant sur les données régionales disponibles, ce rapport met en évidence les principales leçons à tirer en matière d’apprentissage à distance et fournit des recommandations concrètes pour renforcer la résilience des systèmes éducatifs nationaux face aux fermetures des écoles.
Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

AUTHOR(S)
Javier Santiago Ortiz Correa; Marco Valenza; Vincenzo Placco; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

La implementación de la educación a distancia en América Latina y el Caribe, producto del cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19, confirmó que la brecha en el acceso a la electricidad y a la tecnología aún es un obstáculo importante para que los gobiernos de la región puedan atender a todos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El cierre de las escuelas implica el riesgo de ampliar las brechas de aprendizaje existentes, pues las escuelas privadas estaban más preparadas en cuanto al uso de la tecnología para la educación a distancia. Adicionalmente, los niños, niñas y adolescentes de los hogares más favorecidos recibían más apoyo en casa mientras las escuelas estaban cerradas. Conforme los países de la región reabren las escuelas, es vital que los gobiernos incorporen las principales lecciones aprendidas para mejorar la resiliencia y la equidad de sus sistemas educativos. Este informe presenta evidencias sobre el aprendizaje a distancia durante el cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe para orientar a los tomadores de decisiones en la construcción de sistemas educativos más eficaces, sostenibles y resilientes para las crisis actuales y futuras.

What does SEA-PLM 2019 tell us about child well-being and learning in six Southeast Asian countries?

What does SEA-PLM 2019 tell us about child well-being and learning in six Southeast Asian countries?

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

The COVID-19 pandemic presented an opportunity for governments across Southeast Asia to reshape their approach to education so that children and adolescents are equipped with the necessary academic and socioemotional skills to live a rewarding life. By providing deeper insight into children’s attitudes and values in well-being domains, this report reveals the relationship between children’s well-being and academic learning in the region.

What can policymakers and practitioners do to support children and adolescents to excel now and in the future? Through quantitative analysis of the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics 2019 database, along with an investigation of policy implications and promising practices, this report advocates for increased coordination across cross-sectoral government institutions; increased school, parental and community support for children’s development; and providing a platform for children’s voices to understand their perspectives and needs.

Developed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Office of Research-Innocenti and published by UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) as its contribution to the SEA-PLM Secretariat.

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