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Innocenti Discussion Papers

The Discussion Papers are signed pieces by researchers on current topics in social and economic policy and the realization of children's rights. They may discuss technical issues in a focused manner, or in a less detailed manner than Working Papers.

Innocenti Report Card

In keeping with UNICEF's mandate to advocate for children in every country, the Centre's Report Card series focuses on the well-being of children in industrialized countries. Each Report Card includes a league table ranking the countries of the OECD according to their record on the subject under discussion. The Report Cards are designed to appeal to a wide audience while maintaining academic rigour.

Innocenti Research Briefs

Innocenti Research Briefs are a newly-introduced series of short papers intended to provide the latest data, analysis, methods and information on a wide range of issues affecting children. The series addresses various sub-themes in a concise and accessible format, convenient for programme managers and decision makers.

Innocenti Research Report

Innocenti Research Reports provide an overview of recent research projects. They represent in-depth studies on priority themes, usually with well-developed conclusions and policy recommendations.

Innocenti Working Papers

The Working Papers are the foundation of the Centre's research output, underpinning many of the Centre's other publications. These high quality research papers are aimed at an academic and well-informed audience, contributing to ongoing discussion on a wide range of child-related issues. More than 100 Working Papers have been published to date, with recent and forthcoming papers covering the full range of the Centre's agenda. The Working Papers series incorporates the earlier series of Innocenti Occasional Papers (with sub-series), also available for download.


This category will include occasional publications that do not fit under other series; such as books, compendia, manuals, guidelines, annual reports, donor reports, conference and meeting reports.



Innocenti experts produce high quality research that is frequently published in international peer reviewed journals. The themes of publications featured here reflect the entire spectrum of issues shaping global policies and outcomes for children.


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The COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on societies, globally. To help contain the spread of the disease, schools around the world have closed, affecting 1.6 billion learners – approximately 91 per cent of the world’s enrolled students. Governments and education stakeholders have responded swiftly to continue children’s learning, using various delivery channels including digital tools, TV/radio-based teaching and take-home packages for parent or carer-guided education. However, the massive scale of school closures has laid bare the uneven distribution of the technology needed to facilitate remote learning. It has also highlighted the lack of preparedness and low resilience of systems to support teachers, facilitators and parents/caregivers in the successful and safe use of technology for learning. Using data on access to technology from household surveys (MICS and DHS) and information on national education responses to school closures gathered from UNICEF education staff in over 120 countries, this brief explores potential promising practices for equitable remote learning.


Thomas Dreesen; Spogmai Akseer; Mathieu Brossard; Pragya Dewan; Juan-Pablo Giraldo; Akito Kamei; Suguru Mizunoya; Javier Santiago Ortiz Correa

This paper aims to document the likely direct and indirect impacts of the COVID-19 crisis in developed and developing countries. It also aims to identify potential urgent measures to alleviate such impacts on children. Thirty-three years after the UNICEF report, 'Adjustment with a Human Face', the authors warn of the effects of the pandemic which are likely to be considerable and comparable to the recession and debt crisis of the 1980s. The heavy costs for children can only be avoided with systematic and concerted efforts on the part of governments and the international community, to provide extensive financial and social support for the poor, and to invest in the health and education systems, in order to offset the negative impact of the virus-induced recession.


Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Richard Jolly; Frances Stewart

This paper identifies key ethical considerations when undertaking evidence generation involving children during the mitigation stage of the pandemic (emergency phase), on subject matter relating to COVID-19 once the pandemic has been contained, and once containment policy measures, including lockdowns, have been lifted (post-emergency phase). While the COVID-19 pandemic is undoubtedly a global crisis, with evidence generation activities raising critical ethical issues that have been captured in the literature and relevant guidelines, there are specificities relating to this emergency that must be considered when unpacking potential ethical issues. Hence while ethical issues pertaining to evidence generation involving children in emergencies and humanitarian contexts are relevant and should be considered, there are factors that define this ‘special case’ that must be considered from the outset. These will inform the core ethical considerations that need to be addressed.


Gabrielle Berman

Summary report of the inaugural Leading Minds conference "Healthy Minds, Healthy Futures", eld in Florence on 7-9 November 2019

As access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) increases, so too do the risks posed to children. Popular ICTs can enable and facilitate sexual crimes against children, including the production and dissemination of child sexual abuse materials and the facilitation of child prostitution.

Children who are migrating, especially if unaccompanied, face increased risk of being subjected to violence, including sexual violence, exploitation, and human trafficking.

Sport has a powerful effect on children’s well-being and can promote greater physical health, emotional and mental balance, and help children develop important skills. But sport can also expose children to grievous harm and violence.

I minori coinvolti in movimenti migratori sia interni che internazionali corrono un rischio maggiore di essere esposti o sottoposti a violenza. I minori migranti e rifugiati non accompagnati o separati dalla famiglia sono particolarmente vulnerabili e possono essere vittime di violenza sessuale, sfruttamento, lavoro forzato e traffico di esseri umani.

Il progressivo aumento in tutto il mondo dell’accesso alle tecnologie dell'informazione e della comunicazione (TIC) ha implicazioni nell’ambito della tratta e dello sfruttamento sessuale dei bambini. Le TIC più popolari, come i telefoni cellulari e internet, sono diventate strumenti e/o ausili per svariati crimini ai danni dei minori, quali la produzione e la diffusione di materiale pedopornografico , il favoreggiamento della prostituzione minorile , lo sfruttamento sessuale, il traffico di organi, le adozioni illegali, la tratta di bambini per il lavoro forzato, e l'adescamento a fini sessuali.

Lo sport ha un potente effetto sul benessere infantile: può contribuire a una maggiore salute fisica, all'equilibrio emotivo e mentale, e a sviluppare importanti competenze legate alla partecipazione, al team building e alla collaborazione. Tuttavia, sia nella sua pratica quotidiana che nell'organizzazione di grandi eventi, i cosiddetti mega sporting events (MSE), lo sport può esporre i bambini a gravi pericoli e violenze.

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