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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
997 - 1008 of 1115
Education Rights and Minorities
Education Rights and Minorities
Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
Educational rights for minority groups may be included in states' education systems and also enshrined intheir statutes. However, states' laws, their declarations and their educational systems are largely normative statements. For many minority groups, the key issue is whether educational practice actually recognises those legal obligations and aspirations and provides a full, effective and fulfiling education for their young people.
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities
Double Jeopardy: The children of ethnic minorities

AUTHOR(S)
Rodolfo Stavenhagen

Though the relationships between ethnic minorities and dominant societies are multi-faceted and complex, the interrelated but distinct dimensions of marginalization and discrimination provide a useful framework for studying minority groups. Poor children the world over are vulnerable to abuses and violence, exploitation and human rights violations. When, in addition, they belong to disadvantaged minorities, their plight warrants special attention and requires special policies. The paper concludes by exploring several areas relating to minority children which call for further research, not only with the aim of developing the most effective policies for improving the situtation of minority children but also in order to contribute to the creation of a world in which cultural diversity can lead to more, rather than less, tolerance and to the equal enjoyment of human rights by all.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, discrimination, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Right to Child Health: The development of primary health services in Chile and Thailand
The Right to Child Health: The development of primary health services in Chile and Thailand

AUTHOR(S)
Claudio Sepùlveda

Upon what criteria should the international human rights community base its assessment of how successful nations have been in meeting the obligations they signed up to at the CRC? Traditional methods of assessment have centred upon an analysis of comparative ‘social indicator’ statistics. This paper showcases an attempt at a more ad hoc approach in its analysis of the development of health care systems in Chile and Thailand. This ‘historical’ method - with its emphasis upon the unique experience of the individual country - reveals that despite adverse economic circumstances both countries have shown an impressive level of commitment to child rights.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child health, children's rights, implementation of the crc, right to health and health services | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
From Adjustment to Development in Africa: Conflict, controversy, convergence, consensus?

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Gerald K. Helleiner

Published: 1994 Innocenti Publications
The economic crisis in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s generated fierce debate among analysts and policy-makers concerning its causes and appropriate ways out of it. This volume addresses the key policy issues in structural adjustment in Africa. Among the policies addressed are those in the spheres of agriculture, trade, exchange rates, privatization, investment, social sectors, external relations and democratization.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 420 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, agricultural development, democratization, economic development, exchange rate, privatization, trade | Publisher: Publisher MacMillan UK ; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Tax Reforms and Equity in Asia: The experience of the 1980's
Tax Reforms and Equity in Asia: The experience of the 1980's

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Manuelli

The 1980s witnessed a number of important shifts in fiscal policy in both the developed and the developing world. These reforms were carried out in response to such growing pressures as the debt crisis, which were hampering the basic operation of taxation and its overall performance in terms of revenue, fairness and efficiency. This paper examines the Asian experience of this process of change - identifying key reforms and assessing their effectiveness. Particular emphasis is placed throughout upon the equity implications of the various tax systems.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic reform, tax reforms | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Réformes fiscales, génération de ressources et équit en Afrique subsaharienne durant les années 1980

AUTHOR(S)
Kiari Liman-Tinguiri

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic policy, fiscal policy, social inequality | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Macroeconomic Policy, Poverty Alleviation and Long-term Development: Latin America in the 1990s
Macroeconomic Policy, Poverty Alleviation and Long-term Development: Latin America in the 1990s

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia

This Innocenti Occasional Paper examines the social and economic dynamics of poverty in Latin America from the late 1970s onward. The author’s analysis shows clearly the forces at work behind the observed changes in the nature and extent of poverty in the region. He goes on to outline a number of economic and programmatic policy proposals that could help halt the march of mass pauperisation.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic development, poverty, poverty reduction | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Tax Reforms and Equity in Latin America: A review of the 1980s and proposals for the 1990s
Tax Reforms and Equity in Latin America: A review of the 1980s and proposals for the 1990s

AUTHOR(S)
Oscar Cetrángolo; Ricardo Carciofi

This paper focuses on the equity aspects of tax systems in Latin America. Aftrer reviewing quantative characteristics regarding the level and composition of tax structures, the paper analyses recent country experiences of tax reforms and attempts to show how the design of instruments has coped with distributional issues in taxation. Policy proposals to promote a more progressive distribution of the tax burden are presented, paying due notice to institutional and administrative constraints that characterise the region's tax systems and avoiding conflicts with other functions of the tax systems - revenue generation and economic efficiency.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 60 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic reform, tax reforms | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Decentralization and Policies for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in Brazil
Decentralization and Policies for the Protection of Children and Adolescents in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Solon Magalhães Vianna; Iara Marques

Brazil has made concrete its commitment to the principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in the creation of a number of State Programmes of Action. This ‘decentralised’ strategy marks an unprecedented step in a country with a strong tradition of ‘top-down’ federal thinking and limited experience of participatory planning. This paper examines the impact this novel approach has had upon the situation of children and adolescents. Recent achievements include the eradication of polio, a significant reduction in the incidence of measles and neonatal tetanus and an improvement in the management of public schools.
Development and Decentralization of the National Programme of Action for Children in Namibia
Development and Decentralization of the National Programme of Action for Children in Namibia

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen Adkisson; Hugh Hogan

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: child welfare, decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The National Programme of Action for Children and Women in Egypt
The National Programme of Action for Children and Women in Egypt

AUTHOR(S)
Nicolas Luginbuhl

The Egyptian government’s approach to internal development issues had traditionally been very much the product of a ‘top-down’ way of thinking. It was widely assumed that local and regional authorities lacked the necessary technical and resource-allocation know-how. All this changed in 1994 with the drawing-up of policies that were to kick-start a drive toward ‘decentralisation’. This paper sought to anticipate the obstacles and opportunities that might emerge in the future of the process.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Philippines: A case study in local planning for children
The Philippines: A case study in local planning for children

AUTHOR(S)
Wilfredo G. Nuqui

The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. In the Philippines the birth of the overall government plan has been accompanied by that of a number of supporting schemes at the provincial level. This paper examines the preparation and content of these local initiatives. It provides, in so doing, a clear picture of the Philippine experience of ‘decentralisation’ - the process whereby emphasis is transferred from large-scale capital development projects to more sustainable, community-based services for children.
997 - 1008 of 1115
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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