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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1009 - 1020 of 1115
The Difficult Road: The case of NPA decentralization in Argentina
The Difficult Road: The case of NPA decentralization in Argentina

AUTHOR(S)
Alberto Minujin; Pablo Vinocur

The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. The birth of the Argentine NPA took place in a context of profound institutional reform, with the federal government placing responsibility for health care, education and social policy in the hands of the provinces. This paper looks at how this process of ‘decentralisation’ has influenced the NPA’s early development.
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action in Favour of Children in Chile
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action in Favour of Children in Chile

AUTHOR(S)
Kristina Gonçalves; Francisco Coloane

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: child protection, child welfare, decentralization, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action: The experience of Mongolia
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action: The experience of Mongolia

AUTHOR(S)
Uranbileg Bergen; Lutaa Badamhand

The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. The birth of the Mongolian NPA took place within the context of the profound economic transition that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union. In spite of the difficulties imposed by this widely-felt upheaval, Mongolia has succeeded in laying the foundations for a successful NPA, with initiatives at both Governmental and provincial levels. This paper provides a history of this implementation process.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 36 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: child protection, decentralization, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action: A case study of Sudan
The Decentralization of the National Programme of Action: A case study of Sudan

AUTHOR(S)
Tarique Farooqui; Anupama Rao Singh

The birth of the Sudanese National Programme of Action took place in an adverse context characterised by economic isolation and frequent situations of chronic emergency. This paper chronicles the country’s experience of the subsequent ‘decentralisation’ of the programme - the process by which emphasis is transferred from large-scale capital development projects to more sustainable, community-based services for children. It concludes that the eventual success or otherwise of this ongoing process will depend upon such factors as the country’s ability to raise sufficient domestic and external resources.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: child protection, decentralization, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
An Overview of NPA Decentralization in Developing Countries
An Overview of NPA Decentralization in Developing Countries

AUTHOR(S)
Carlos Castillo Cardona; Claire Akehurst

The 1990 World Summit for Children brought together 71 Heads of State and Government to discuss ways in which to improve the lives of the world’s children. The international ‘Plan of Action’ adopted at the summit recognised the importance of grass-roots initiatives at the local level. Countries have responded to this call for decentralisation in the development and implementation of their individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. Using survey data from 103 UNICEF field offices from across the world, this paper aims to provide a general overview of the NPA decentralisation phenomenon - where and how it is occurring, the roles of the major actors and the results that have been achieved to date.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: decentralization, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
A Subnational Outreach Programme: Proposed action steps and training for primary health care implementation
A Subnational Outreach Programme: Proposed action steps and training for primary health care implementation

AUTHOR(S)
James B. Mayfield

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: Health, National Development Programmes | Tags: health policy, implementation programmes, primary health care | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Vietnam National Programme of Action: A decentralization study
The Vietnam National Programme of Action: A decentralization study

AUTHOR(S)
Kiri Evans; Adam Rorris

The 1990 World Summit for Children set in motion the development of what were called ‘National Programmes of Action’ in a number of countries. The Vietnamese government has taken its programme a step further than most, having actively encouraged the growth of sub-programmes at the provincial level. This paper examines the then current stage in the country’s experience of this ‘decentralisation’ process; the opportunities it had created and the difficulties hindering its continued progress.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 28 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: decentralization, national policies, National Programme of Action | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Decentralization of Services for Children: The Spanish experience
Decentralization of Services for Children: The Spanish experience

AUTHOR(S)
Ferran Casas

The ‘Plan Of Action’ adopted at the 1990 World Summit for Children recognised the importance of grass-roots initiatives for children at the provincial level. In many countries, this call for ‘decentralisation’ has triggered the beginnings of an entirely novel process. In Spain, a general trend toward the provincial and the participatory had already begun - the effect of the NPA has been to strengthen an already existent phenomenon. This paper documents Spain’s extensive experience of decentralisation and the influence it has had upon policy and services for children.
El Trabajo Infantile y la Educación Básica en America Latina y el Caribe
El Trabajo Infantile y la Educación Básica en America Latina y el Caribe

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes; Vicky Colbert de Arboleda; Emilio Garcia Mendez

Published: 1994 Innocenti Essay
Crisis in Mortality, Health and Nutrition (Russian version)
Crisis in Mortality, Health and Nutrition (Russian version)
Published: 1994 Regional Monitoring Report
After the collapse of the communist system in 1989, most Eastern European countries experienced a mortality and health crisis. However, this did not hit the traditionally most vulnerable groups - children, adolescents, women and the elderly - but male adults in the 20-59 age group. The Report indicates that the surge is largely dependent on three transition-related factors: widespread impoverishment, erosion of preventive health services, sanitary and medical services and social stress. Although infants, children and young adolescents have not been greatly or directly affected by the mortality crisis, the Report points out that their situation has been severely threatened by more frequent sickness and greater nutritional imbalances, while the upturn in adult deaths is leading to a considerably heightened risk of poverty, abandonment or orphanhood.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: Three essays on the challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

Published: 1993 Innocenti Essay
The Convention on the Rights of the Child has been variously hailed as ‘the cornerstone of a new moral ethos’ and a ‘milestone in the history of mankind’. But laws and treaties are as nothing without adequate practical follow-up. The real results will depend not upon the high-mindedness of the ideals themselves, but upon the action taken to achieve them. The ‘challenge of implementation’, is the subject of the three papers collected here. The CRC must not be dismissed as ‘another Utopia’ and it is argued that, with the right policy decisions, the convention’s initial momentum can be sustained.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 38 | Thematic area: Convention on the Rights of the Child | Tags: convention on the rights of the child, implementation of the crc | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation
Education and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: The challenge of implementation

AUTHOR(S)
Frank Dall

1009 - 1020 of 1115
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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