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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1021 - 1032 of 1115
Street and Working Children: Global Seminar Report, 1993
Street and Working Children: Global Seminar Report, 1993

AUTHOR(S)
Maggie Black

Published: 1993 Innocenti Global Seminar
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour | Tags: child workers, children's rights, street children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case
Home-Based Community Day Care and Children's Rights: The Colombian case

AUTHOR(S)
Carlos Castillo Cardona; Nelson Ortiz Pinilla; Alejandra Gonzales Rossetti

Over recent years demographic trends in Columbia (such as the increased participation of women in the workforce) have led to an increased demand for a viable day care system for 3-6 year olds. This has largely been met by an innovative programme set up by the Colombian Family Welfare Institute. The idea at the basis of their initiative is simple yet effective: mothers are given the training and support to enable them to offer day care within their homes to the children of other families from their own communities. This paper describes in detail the design and implementation of this programme. It is hoped international organisations and other countries will draw inspiration from this Colombian success story.
Education and the Market: Which parts of the neo-liberal solution are correct?
Education and the Market: Which parts of the neo-liberal solution are correct?

AUTHOR(S)
Christopher Colclough

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic development, education, liberalism, market economy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Decline of Infant Mortality in Europe, 1800-1950: Four national case studies
The Decline of Infant Mortality in Europe, 1800-1950: Four national case studies

AUTHOR(S)
Pier Paolo Viazzo; Carlo A. Corsini

Published: 1993 Historical Perspectives
The basic facts about the secular decline of infant mortality in Europe have been known for nearly a century. Regristration series show that the levels of infant mortality in the late nineteenth century were still extremely high and could vary quite markedly from one country to another, ranging from about 100 per 1,000 live births in Norway and Sweden to 200 or even 250 per 1,000 in countries such as Germany, Austria and Russia. At the turn of the century, however, infant mortality began to fall almost right across the continent. By the 1950s, when national rates of infant mortality ranged between 20 and 50 per 1,000, the process of convergence was nearly completed. The fall in infant mortality, which was paralelled by a simultaneous and equally pronounced decline in fertility, was responsible for raising life expectancy in many European countries by more than 10 years over a remarkably short period of time. The countries reviewed in this publication are Sweden, England, France and Austria.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 86 | Thematic area: Early Childhood | Tags: child development, health policy, historical analysis, infant mortality, social policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Public Policy and Social Conditions
Public Policy and Social Conditions
Published: 1993 Regional Monitoring Report
In the early 1990s considerable attention was given to the issues of stabilization, privatization, taxation and labour market adjustment in the Eastern Europe transition, but demographic and welfare issues received less attention. While the economic and social reforms undertaken were desirable they faced severe problems of implementation and involved economic, social and political costs far greater than anticipated. This first Report highlights the fact that initial hopes for rapid transformation and economic prosperity were quickly tempered by a considerable decline in output, employment and incomes, a worsening of some social indicators, and the appearance of new welfare problems. The Report warns against neglecting the social costs of transition which affect children and adults, but also threaten the entire reform process.
Urban Stress and its Effects on Children's Lifestyles and Health in Industrialized Countries
Urban Stress and its Effects on Children's Lifestyles and Health in Industrialized Countries

AUTHOR(S)
Solvig Ekblad

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 70 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child welfare, industrialized countries, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children of Minorities: Gypsies
Children of Minorities: Gypsies

AUTHOR(S)
Sandro Costarelli

Published: 1993 Innocenti Insights
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 76 | Thematic area: Minorities | Tags: children's rights, minority children, minority groups, rights of minority children, roma, roma children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
Nutrition and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child

AUTHOR(S)
Urban Jonsson

Nutrition is mentioned specifically only three times in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. However, through its emphasis upon food, health, and care, the Convention makes it clear that good nutrition should be regarded as a fundamental human right. This study reviews the progress that governments have made in implementing this aspect of the Convention, providing ‘status reports’ on the inclusion of nutrition goals in individual ‘National Programmes of Action’. The paper includes a background overview of the development of human nutrition as a science, together with a survey of current trends in thinking on the subject.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: child nutrition, children's rights, implementation of the crc, nutrition, right to food | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Policy and Capital Market Constraints to the African Green Revolution: A study of maize and sorghum yields in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe
Policy and Capital Market Constraints to the African Green Revolution: A study of maize and sorghum yields in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe

AUTHOR(S)
Paul Mosley

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: agricultural development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Two Errors of Targeting
Two Errors of Targeting

AUTHOR(S)
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Frances Stewart

This paper is the product of the authors’ detailed study of food intervention programmes in nine countries. It identifies the imperfections common to all such schemes, finding that most can be brought under two headings - the ‘two errors’ of the title. These mistakes involve excess coverage - food aid is misdirected and reaches a non-priority population - and are characterised by a failure in the prime objective of the intervention. Having made the diagnosis, the authors go on to discuss possible remedies, highlighting areas in which improvements might be made to the structure of food initiatives. It is hoped that this document will be of value to all those working to ensure that food aid gets to the people who need it most.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 56 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: economic aid, economic planning, food supply | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Decentralization and Community Participation for Improving Access to Basic Services: An empirical approach
Decentralization and Community Participation for Improving Access to Basic Services: An empirical approach

AUTHOR(S)
Housainou Taal

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: access to basic services, basic services, community participation, decentralization | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Los hogares comunitarios de bienestar y los derechos del niño: el caso Colombiano
Los hogares comunitarios de bienestar y los derechos del niño: el caso Colombiano

AUTHOR(S)
Nelson Ortiz Pinilla; Carlos Castillo Cardona; Alejandra Gonzales Rossetti

1021 - 1032 of 1115
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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