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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being
SPOTLIGHT

Places and Spaces: Environments and children’s well-being

Report Card 17 explores how 43 OECD/EU countries are faring in providing healthy environments for children. Do children have clean water to drink? Do they have good-quality air to breathe? Are their homes free of lead and mould? How many children live in overcrowded homes? How many have access to green play spaces, safe from road traffic? Data show that a nation’s wealth does not guarantee a healthy environment. Far too many children are deprived of a healthy home, irreversibly damaging their current and future well-being. Beyond children’s immediate environments, over-consumption in some of the world’s richest countries is destroying children’s environments globally. This threatens both children worldwide and future generations. To provide all children with safe and healthy environments, governments, policymakers, businesses and all stakeholders are called to act on a set of policy recommendations.
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Trends in the Structure and Stability of the Family from 1950 to the Present: The impact on child welfare
Trends in the Structure and Stability of the Family from 1950 to the Present: The impact on child welfare

AUTHOR(S)
Chiara Saraceno

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 62 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, family patterns, family structure | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Growth, Income Distribution and Household Welfare in the Industrialized Countries since the First Oil Shock
Growth, Income Distribution and Household Welfare in the Industrialized Countries since the First Oil Shock

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea Boltho

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: family income, family welfare, income distribution, industrialized countries | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Welfare and the Socialist Experiment: Social and economic trends in the USSR 1960-90
Child Welfare and the Socialist Experiment: Social and economic trends in the USSR 1960-90

AUTHOR(S)
Alexander Riazantsev; Sandor Sipos; Oleg Labetsky

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 58 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: child welfare, economic transition, socialism | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden
Children in the Welfare State: Current problems and prospects in Sweden

AUTHOR(S)
Sven E. Olsson; Roland Spånt

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, industrialized countries, national policies | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Italy: Too little time and space for childhood
Italy: Too little time and space for childhood

AUTHOR(S)
Ray Lorenzo

Published: 1992 Innocenti Studies
The Urban Child project launched studies in the Philippines, Brazil, India and Kenya. Italy constituted a special challenge because it introduced to the project a North-South dimension. Owing to the rapid industrialization and economic growth of the period 1950-1980, Italian children have certainly fared better. However, severe forms of disaffection and problems among Italian youth have also emerged.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child-friendly cities, right to adequate standard of living, standard of living, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
India: The forgotten children of the cities
India: The forgotten children of the cities

AUTHOR(S)
Amrita Chatterjee

Published: 1992 Innocenti Studies
In India, as in other countries, the rise in the number of street and working children is associated with the phenomenon of rapid urban growth, especially of sprawling slums and shanty towns. The predicament of the urban child "in difficult circumstances" is inextricable from these conditions of urban poverty in which he and she is brought up. The first point of any enquiry into childhood in India's slums and squatter settlements, therefore, has to be the entire living context of poor urban children: physical, environmental, socio-economic, and familial. Unless the child's family is made the target of understanding and improvement, there is not likely to be sustained amelioration of the children's current plight or future prospects.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: abandoned children, children in especially difficult circumstances, street children, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Kenya: Child newcomers in the urban jungle
Kenya: Child newcomers in the urban jungle

AUTHOR(S)
Dorothy Munyakho

Published: 1992 Innocenti Studies
In order to establish fully the connection between urban children in especially difficult circumstances and the problems their families are encountering, it is also necessary to address the effects of social change on families and individuals. This ranges from understanding the deterioration of family ties in different environments, to identifying changes in expectations, personal roles and atttitudes familiar in many countries. The 'Urban Child' project, furthermore, while not strictly undertaking a comparative analysis, has sought to identify and highlight common problems such as overcrowding, pollution, the growing presence of drugs and AIDS, urban violence, internal and external migration, and the lack of a sense of belonging.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: right to adequate standard of living, standard of living, street children, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Urban Child in the Third World: Urbanization trends and some principal issues
The Urban Child in the Third World: Urbanization trends and some principal issues

AUTHOR(S)
Jorge E. Hardoy

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child poverty, urban children, urbanization | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Childhood and Urban Poverty in Brazil: Street and working children and their families
Childhood and Urban Poverty in Brazil: Street and working children and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Irene Rizzini; Irma Rizzini; Monica Munhoz; Lidia Galeano

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 62 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child poverty, child workers, street children, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Urban Children in Distress: An introduction to the issues
Urban Children in Distress: An introduction to the issues

AUTHOR(S)
Cristina S. Blanc

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 72 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child poverty, children in especially difficult circumstances, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Disadvantaged Urban Child in India
The Disadvantaged Urban Child in India

AUTHOR(S)
A.B. Bose

The situation of disadvantaged urban children in India should be seen in the overall context of the country's growing urban population and increasing urban poverty. About 42 million people, representing 20 per cent of the total urban population, had incomes that fell below the poverty line in 1988. Of the 71 million urban children (1992) 0-14 years of age, an overwhelming 15 to 18 million live in slums. Beyond the general picture of urban children, this report provides a more detailed analysis of specific categories of at-risk children, such as working children, street children and other disadvantaged children in need of care and protection.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 74 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child poverty, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship
Children's Participation: From tokenism to citizenship

AUTHOR(S)
Roger A. Hart

Published: 1992 Innocenti Essay
A nation is democratic to the extent that its citizens are involved, particularly at the community level. The confidence and competence to be involved must be gradually acquired through practice. It is for this reason that there should be gradually increasing opportunities for children to participate in any aspiring democracy, and particularly in those nations already convinced that they are democratic. With the growth of children’s rights we are beginning to see an increasing recognition of children’s abilities to speak for themselves. Regrettably, while children’s and youths’ participation does occur in different degrees around the world, it is often exploitative or frivolous. This Essay is written for people who know that young people have something to say but who would like to reflect further on the process. It is also written for those people who have it in their power to assist children in having a voice, but who, unwittingly or not, trivialize their involvement.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 44 | Thematic area: Children's Participation | Tags: children's participation, children's rights, right to be heard | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
1045 - 1056 of 1119
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
Publication

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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