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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports
Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning
SPOTLIGHT

Increasing Women’s Representation in School Leadership: A promising path towards improving learning

Emerging evidence shows a positive association between women school leaders and student performance. Some studies suggest women school leaders are more likely than their male counterparts to adopt effective management practices that may contribute to improved outcomes. However, women remain largely underrepresented in school leadership positions, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This brief presents emerging insights on the association between women school leaders and education outcomes and draws attention to women’s underrepresentation in school leadership roles. It highlights the need for further research on gender and school leadership to identify policies and practices that can be implemented to increase women’s representation and scale high-quality management practices adopted by women leaders to more schools to improve education outcomes for all children.
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Annual Report 2021
Publication

Annual Report 2021

The UNICEF Innocenti Annual Report 2021 highlights the key results achieved in research and evidence to inform policymaking and programming.
1057 - 1068 of 1115
Africa's Recovery in the 1990s: From stagnation and adjustment to human development

AUTHOR(S)
John de St. Jorre; Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Rolf van der Hoeven

Published: 1992 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 375 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic recovery | Publisher: Macmillan, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Changes in Health Care Financing and Health Status: The case of China in the 1980s
Changes in Health Care Financing and Health Status: The case of China in the 1980s

AUTHOR(S)
Yu Dezhi

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 70 | Thematic area: Economic Development, Health | Tags: health, health care facilities, health expenditures | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Distributive Impact of Fiscal and Labour Market Policies: Chile's 1990-1991 Reforms
The Distributive Impact of Fiscal and Labour Market Policies: Chile's 1990-1991 Reforms

AUTHOR(S)
Mariana Schkolnik

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: development planning, economic planning | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
External Debt, Fiscal Drainage and Child Welfare: Trends and policy proposals
External Debt, Fiscal Drainage and Child Welfare: Trends and policy proposals

AUTHOR(S)
Stephany Griffith-Jones

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, child welfare, economic aid, external debt, fiscal policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Economics of Disarmament: Prospects, problems and policies for the disarmament dividend
The Economics of Disarmament: Prospects, problems and policies for the disarmament dividend

AUTHOR(S)
Saadet Deger

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: disarmament, economic policy | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Eradicating Child Malnutrition: Thailand's health, nutrition and poverty alleviation policy in the 1980s
Eradicating Child Malnutrition: Thailand's health, nutrition and poverty alleviation policy in the 1980s

AUTHOR(S)
Thienchay Kiranandana; Kraisid Tontisirin

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: child malnutrition, child poverty, health, nutrition, poverty alleviation | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Improving Nutrition in Tanzania in the 1980s: The Iringa experience
Improving Nutrition in Tanzania in the 1980s: The Iringa experience

AUTHOR(S)
Marcel Rudasingwa; Raphael Mlolwa

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 52 | Thematic area: National Development Programmes | Tags: iringa initiative, national policies, nutrition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Italia: più tempo e spazio ai bambini
Italia: più tempo e spazio ai bambini

AUTHOR(S)
Ray Lorenzo

Published: 1992 Innocenti Studies
Il progetto "Bambino urbano" ha promosso attività di ricerca nelle Filippine, in Brasile, India e Kenya. L'Italia, invece, costituisce una sfida particolare che introduce nel progetto la dimensione Nord-Sud. I bambini italiani vivono sicuramente meglio per la rapida industrializzazione e la crescita economica nel periodo 1950-1980. Nello stesso tempo, tuttavia, emergono fra le giovani generazioni forme anche gravi di disagio e di emarginazione, non sempre adeguatamente compresi e fronteggiati dalla società.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Urban Child | Tags: child-friendly cities, right to adequate standard of living, standard of living, urban children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
L'Afrique vers la reprise économique - Résumé
L'Afrique vers la reprise économique - Résumé

AUTHOR(S)
John de St. Jorre; Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Rolf van der Hoeven

Published: 1992 Innocenti Publications
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Economic Development | Tags: adjustment policies, economic development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
The Convention: Child rights and UNICEF experience at the country level
The Convention: Child rights and UNICEF experience at the country level
Published: 1991 Innocenti Studies
Historical Perspectives on Breastfeeding: Two essays
Historical Perspectives on Breastfeeding: Two essays

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Matthews Grieco; Carlo A. Corsini

Published: 1991 Historical Perspectives
The first wave of historical studies of breastfeeding was instrumental in allowing economists, social scientists and decision-makers to guage the order of magnitude of the potantial demographic effects of changing infant feeding patterns that were apparantly underway in many third world countries. In the past 20 years much more information has become available on the effects of feeding patterns on infant mortality in developing countries, yet there are still interesting lessons to be learnt from the past. A blending of quantitative and qualitative evidence can contribute to a better understanding of behavioural dilemmas and can also help us to assess the impact of innovation and official intervention on the survival chances of infants and young children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 96 | Thematic area: Early Childhood | Tags: breastfeeding, child nutrition, early childhood development, historical analysis | Publisher: Istituto degli Innocenti, Florence; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children in Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe
Children in Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes; Cassie Landers; Susi Kessler

Published: 1991 Innocenti Essay
To help deal with the particular needs of children at a time of rapid political and economic change in central and eastern Europe, in 1990 the UNICEF Executive Board approved a special three-year effort of "transitional support". In response to specific requests for cooperation, UNICEF was authorized "to provide technical support to rethink policies for child survival, development and protection in the context of the new situations" and to support "data collection on the situation of children and women, analytical studies, technical workshops, information materials and other related activities".
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 32 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic transition, institutionalized children | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
1057 - 1068 of 1115
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Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being
Publication

Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children: Digital technology, play and child well-being

Digital experiences can have significant negative impact on children, exposing them to risks or failing to nurture them adequately. Nevertheless, digital experiences also potentially yield enormous benefits for children, enabling them to learn, to create, to develop friendships, and to build worlds. While global efforts to deepen our understanding of the prevalence and impact of digital risks of harm are burgeoning – a development that is both welcome and necessary – less attention has been paid to understanding and optimizing the benefits that digital technology can provide in supporting children’s rights and their well-being. Benefits here refer not only to the absence of harm, but also to creating additional positive value. How should we recognize the opportunities and benefits of digital technology for children’s well-being? What is the relationship between the design of digital experiences – in particular, play-centred design – and the well-being of children? What guidance and measures can we use to strengthen the design of digital environments to promote positive outcomes for children? And how can we make sure that children’s insights and needs form the foundation of our work in this space? These questions matter for all those who design and promote digital experiences, to keep children safe and happy, and enable positive development and learning. These questions are particularly relevant as the world shifts its attention to emerging digital technologies and experiences, from artificial intelligence (AI) to the metaverse, and seeks to understand their impact on people and society. To begin to tackle these questions, UNICEF and the LEGO Group initiated the Responsible Innovation in Technology for Children (RITEC) project in partnership with the Young and Resilient Research Centre at Western Sydney University; the CREATE Lab at New York University; the Graduate Center, City University of New York; the University of Sheffield; the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for the Digital Child; and the Joan Ganz Cooney Center. The research is funded by the LEGO Foundation. The partnership is an international, multi-stakeholder and cross-sectoral collaboration between organizations that believe the design and development of digital technology should support the rights and well-being of children as a primary objective – and that children should have a prominent voice in making this a reality. This project’s primary objective is to develop, with children from around the world, a framework that maps how the design of children’s digital experiences affects their well-being, and to provide guidance as to how informed design choices can promote positive well-being outcomes.
Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation
Publication

Resources to Support Marginalized Caregivers of Children with Disabilities: Guidelines for Implementation

Support from caregivers is critical for children’s learning both at home and at school. However, the COVID-19 pandemic and disruption of education systems globally created additional expectations for parents to support their children’s learning at home. This particularly affected the most marginalized children as the crises exacerbated already existing inequalities in education. This document introduces the approach and purpose of a set of resources to support the marginalized caregivers of children with disabilities with inclusive education. It presents lessons learned from proof-of-concept pilots in Armenia and Uzbekistan, followed by step-by-step guidelines on how to adopt and adapt the resources for education ministries and others who want to implement them in their education system.
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia
Publication

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from Remote Learning during COVID-19: Europe and Central Asia

When schools started closing their doors due to COVID-19, countries in Europe and Central Asia quickly provided alternative learning solutions for children to continue learning. More than 90 per cent of countries offered digital solutions to ensure that education activities could continue. However, lack of access to digital devices and a reliable internet connection excluded a significant amount of already marginalized children and threatened to widen the existing learning disparities. This report builds on existing evidence highlighting key lessons learned during the pandemic to promote learning for all during school closure and provides actionable policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide and build resilient education systems in Europe and Central Asia.

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