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32 items found
Iraq’s public distribution system (PDS) is the only universal non-contributory social transfer system in the world. Through three decades of conflict and fragility, food rations delivered through the PDS have remained the single largest safety net among Iraq’s population. Reforming the PDS continues to be politically challenging, notwithstanding its heavy dependence on imports and associated economic distortions as well as an unsustainable fiscal burden. The fiscal crisis since mid-2014 has, however, put PDS reform back on the agenda. In this context, this paper employs a mixed demand approach to analyse consumption patterns in Iraqi households and quantify the welfare impact of a potential reform of the PDS in urban areas. The results of the ex ante simulations show that household consumption of PDS items is relatively inelastic to changes in price, particularly among the poorest quintiles, and that these goods are normal goods. Cross-sectional comparisons suggest that, with improvements in welfare, and with well-functioning markets, some segments of the population are substituting away from the PDS and increasing their consumption of market substitutes. Overall, the results suggest that any one-shot reform will have adverse and sizeable welfare impacts. The removal of all subsidies in urban areas will require compensating poor households by 74 per cent of their expenditures and the richest households by nearly 40 per cent to keep welfare constant. However, a targeted removal of the top 4 deciles from PDS eligibility in urban areas will leave poverty rates unaffected and generate cost savings, but will need to be carefully communicated and managed to counter public discontent.

AUTHOR(S)

Nandini Krishnan; Sergio Olivieri; Racha Ramadan
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Based on an evidence-focused literature review, the first part of this paper examines existing knowledge on how the time children spend using digital technology impacts their well-being across three dimensions; mental/psychological, social and physical. The evidence reviewed here is largely inconclusive with respect to impact on children’s physical activity, but indicates that digital technology seems to be beneficial for children’s social relationships. In terms of impact on children’s mental well-being, the most robust studies suggest that the relationship is U-shaped, where no use and excessive use can have a small negative impact on mental well-being, while moderate use can have a small positive impact. In the second part of the paper, the hypothetical idea of addiction to technology is introduced and scrutinized. This is followed by an overview of the hypothetical idea that digital technology might re-wire or hijack children’s brains; an assumption that is challenged by recent neuroscience evidence. In conclusion, considerable methodological limitations exist across the spectrum of research on the impact of digital technology on child well-being, including the majority of the studies on time use reviewed here, and those studies concerned with clinical or brain impacts. This prompts reconsideration of how research in this area is conducted. Finally, recommendations for strengthening research practices are offered.
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This brief focuses on quantitative data and indicators to measure adolescent health, social development and well-being. It covers: the principles of good indicator definition; common use of indicators; examples of indicators for adolescent health and social development; existing global data to describe - and populate indicators of - adolescent health and social development; and how to improve data collection efforts.

AUTHOR(S)

Peter Azzopardi; Elissa Kennedy; George C Patton
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This working paper presents findings from the analyses of two different observational studies of caregiver-pre-adolescent and caregiver-adolescent dyads.

AUTHOR(S)

Sachin De Stone; Franziska Meinck; Lorraine Sherr; Lucie Cluver; Jenny Doubt; Frederick Mark Orkin; Caroline Kuo; Amogh Sharma; Imca Hensels; Sarah Skeen; Alice Redfern; Mark Tomlinson
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The international community has recognized the importance of internet access for development, economic growth and the realization of civil rights and is actively seeking ways to ensure universal internet access to all segments of society. Children should be an important part of this process, not only because they represent a substantial percentage of internet users but also because they play an important part in shaping the internet.

AUTHOR(S)

Jasmina Byrne; Daniel Kardefelt Winther; Sonia Livingstone; Mariya Stoilova
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This paper revisits the relationship between income and happiness and estimates the impact of a social cash transfer programme on individual subjective well-being. Social cash transfer programmes provide consistent, non-contributory income to targeted, poor households. In Latin America, they are usually conditioned on measurable behaviours, but in sub-Saharan Africa they tend to be unconditional.

AUTHOR(S)

Kelly Kilburn; Sudhanshu Handa; Gustavo Angeles; Peter Mvula; Maxton Tsoka
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Longitudinal research can help countries meet the challenges of sustainable development. The examples presented in this Brief serve to demonstrate the unique advantages of having access to longitudinal studies to complement cross-sectional surveys and administrative series.The Brief reviews data from the Young Lives cohorts, reflecting on evidence from the 2000-2015 Millennium Development period.

AUTHOR(S)

Paul Dornan; Caroline Knowles; Prerna Banati
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During the Great Recession, employment in the United States fell by more than 8 million between January 2008 and December 2009 and unemployment rose to a peak of 15.6 million persons in October 2009. This paper focuses on child poverty, as children experience some of the highest poverty rates of any group in the United States.

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Marianne Bitler; Hilary Hoynes; Elira Kuka
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Greece is among the countries hit most severely by the recent global economic crisis. Given that poverty in childhood and adolescence can have lifelong implications, investigation of the impact of the crisis on various aspects of adolescents’ well-being is critical for guiding prevention policies.

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Anna Kokkevi; Myrto Stavrou; Eleftheria Kanavou; Anastasios Fotiou
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This report explores the ways in which information and communication technologies (ICTs) can contribute to efforts towards meeting child-focused development goals. It serves as a key contribution on which to build informed dialogue and decision making, developed jointly between research, policy and practice.

COORDINATOR(S)

Patrizia Faustini

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Dorothea Kleine; Sammia Poveda; David Hollow
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32 items found