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This compendium is part of an international project entitled Ethical Research Involving Children. The project has been motivated by a shared international concern that the human dignity of children is honoured, and that their rights and well-being are respected in all research, regardless of context.

AUTHOR(S)

Mary Ann Powell; Nicola Taylor; Robyn Fitzgerald; Ann Graham; Donnah Anderson
LANGUAGES:
Despite the acknowledged importance and large scale of rural-urban migration in many developing countries, few studies have compared education outcomes of migrants to those for people born in the city. This paper uses recent data from Dhaka, Bangladesh, and Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, Vietnam, to examine educational expenditure and children’s grade attainment, with a focus on poor households.

AUTHOR(S)

Stuart Cameron
LANGUAGES:
This paper provides an overview and analysis of the initial steps towards the establishment of a separate ombudsman for children in Turkey. Looking at children’s socio-economic conditions, the legal and political situation, as well as the perception of childhood in the country, it reviews the rationale for the creation of a children’s ombudsman. The paper then examines current processes from a child rights perspective, in particular with respect to the now cancelled general ombudsman law.

AUTHOR(S)

Vanessa Sedletzki
LANGUAGES:
L’obligation de poursuivre et de punir les crimes graves stipulée dans le droit international et la volonté d’apporter réparation aux victimes ont conduit à l’élaboration d’approches de justice transitionnelle destinées à sanctionner la violence de masse ou les abus systématiques. Jusqu’à récemment, les violations à l’encontre des enfants n’étaient pas distinguées de la masse d’atrocités commises contre les populations civiles en général. Les commissions vérité constituent l’un des moyens pour commencer à réparer les torts faits aux enfants, aux familles et aux communautés pendant un conflit armé.

LANGUAGES:
Le présent Bilan présente un premier aperçu des inégalités en termes de bien-être infantile dans vingt-quatre des pays les plus riches du monde. Trois dimensions de l’inégalité sont examinées : le bien-être matériel, l’éducation et la santé. Dans chaque cas et pour chaque pays, la question posée est la suivante : ‘Dans quelle mesure les pays autorisent-ils que le bien-être infantile soit mis à mal ?’ Ce rapport tente de stigmatiser les pays qui autorisent une dégradation inacceptable du bien-être des enfants en termes d’éducation, de santé et de bien-être matériel. En attirant l’attention sur l’ampleur des disparités mises en exergue et en faisant la synthèse des conséquences connues, ce rapport souligne que cette ‘mise au ban’ est une question critique non seulement pour des millions d’enfants aujourd'hui, mais aussi pour l’avenir socio-économique de leurs pays.

AUTHOR(S)

Peter Adamson
Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices

Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older mothers to have their daughters cut. This paper provides an analysis of the social dynamics of change in four geographic locations with different ethnic populations in Ethiopia, where interventions were undertaken to support the abandonment of FGM/C and other harmful practices.

AUTHOR(S)

Haile Gabriel Dagne
LANGUAGES:
The aim of this publication is to provide a review of the literature and current policies of early childhood education and care in the economically most advanced countries of the world. The introductory chapter provides some basic definitions: what is meant by 'early childhood services' both in the narrow sense of care and education services for young children (family day care, childcare centres, pre-primary educational services, integrated services, etc.) and in the wider sense of services supporting the holistic development of young children.

AUTHOR(S)

John Bennett
LANGUAGES:
Las investigaciones recogidas en cientos de estudios demuestran los beneficios que proporcionan la educación y los cuidados de calidad durante la primera infancia para el aprendizaje posterior del niño, su éxito escolar y su desarrollo social. Habiendo reconocido el valor de ofrecer oportunidades educativas al niño desde los primeros momentos de su vida, muchos países han extendido la educación y los cuidados a la primera infancia durante los últimos años. México consituye un caso interesante, en el que durante los últimos cinco años se han extendido la educación y los cuidados a la primera infancia, así como las iniciativas encaminadas a mejorar la calidad y a reformar el currículo nacional de los preescolares.

AUTHOR(S)

Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Robert G. Myers; Kathleen McCartney; Kristen L. Bub; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Maria A. Ramos; Felicia Knaul
LANGUAGES:
An accumulation of research across hundreds of studies shows the benefits of quality early childhood care and education for children’s later learning, school success and social development. In recognition of the value of providing early learning opportunities, many nations have expanded early childhood care and education in recent years. Mexico provides an interesting case in which expansion of early childhood care and education has occurred in the past 5 years, as have initiatives to improve quality and revise the national curriculum for pre-schoolers.

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Robert G. Myers; Kathleen McCartney; Kristen L. Bub; Julieta Lugo-Gil; Maria A. Ramos; Felicia Knaul
LANGUAGES:
The Convention on the Rights of the Child introduces for the first time in an international human rights treaty, the concept of the ‘evolving capacities’ of the child. This principle has been described as a new principle of interpretation in international law, recognising that, as children acquire enhanced competencies, there is a diminishing need for protection and a greater capacity to take responsibility for decisions affecting their lives. Action is needed in law, policy and practice so that the contributions children make and the capacities they hold are acknowledged.

AUTHOR(S)

Gerison Lansdown
LANGUAGES:
59 items found