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The paper uses data from a quasi-experimental evaluation to estimate the impact of the Ghanaian Government’s unconditional cash transfer programme on schooling outcomes. It analyses the impacts for children by various subgroups – age, gender, cognitive ability – and finds consistent impacts. There are differences across gender, especially on secondary schooling, with enrolment significantly higher for boys 13 years or older. For girls, the effect of the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) programme is to improve current attendance among those who are already enrolled in school (across all age groups). The authors found a significant effect on the expenditure on schooling items such as uniforms and stationary for these groups, which helps to explain the pathway of impact because these out-of-pocket costs are typically important barriers to schooling in rural Ghana and most of Africa.

AUTHOR(S)

Richard de Groot; Sudhanshu Handa; Mike Park; Robert D. Osei; Isaac Osei-Akoto; Luigi Peter Ragno; Garima Bhalla
LANGUAGES:
Over the past decade, more than a dozen government-run cash transfer programmes have been launched in sub-Saharan Africa, and there is growing evidence of their ability to improve a range of development outcomes. However, setting the size of such transfers is possibly the most important programming decision to be made. This Brief highlights some of the issues to consider.

AUTHOR(S)

Sudhanshu Handa; Benjamin Davis
LANGUAGES:
Tackling poverty and inequalities is now embedded within the mandates of governments and organizations worldwide. UNICEF has been a leader on this, and concern about inequalities has also been picked up in the debates surrounding post 2015 development goals.

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Paul Dornan; Martin Woodhead
LANGUAGES:
The aim of the paper is to understand how short consumption modules fare relative to a longer and more detailed consumption module in terms of the accuracy of the resulting estimates. The objective is particularly challenging as the use of non-equivalent samples makes it difficult to assess the accuracy and reliability of the estimates obtained.

CO-AUTHOR(S)

Luisa Natali; Chris De Neubourg
LANGUAGES:
Das Handbuch dient zum besseren Verständnis und effizienteren Durchsetzung des Fakultativprotokolls zum Übereinkommen der Rechte des Kindes mit Bezug auf den Verkauf von Kindern, der Kinderprostitution und Kinderpornographie. Die Ausgabe beschreibt die Entstehung, den Umfang und Inhalt des Protokolls und liefert Beispiele von Maßnahmen der Staaten zur Erfüllung ihrer Pflichten im Rahmen dieses Instrumentes. Dieses wichtige Handbuch richtet sich in erster Linie an öffentliche Bedienstete, UN-Organisationen, Kinderrechtsanwälte sowie andere, die mit und für Kinder tätig sind und deren Aufgaben und Aktivitäten den Schutz von Kindern vor Ausbeutung auf der nationalen oder lokalen Ebene verbessern.

The Handbook aims to promote understanding and effective implementation of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The publication describes the genesis, scope and content of the Protocol, and provides examples of measures taken by States Parties to fulfil their obligations under this instrument. This essential guide is addressed principally to public officials, UN organizations, child rights advocates and others who work with and for children, and whose duties and activities can enhance the protection of children from exploitation, whether on the national or local level.

This paper examines the measurement of infant mortality in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are worrying indications that official infant mortality counts, based on administrative data, may underestimate the true gravity of the problem.

AUTHOR(S)

Gerry Redmond; Nadezhda Aleshina
LANGUAGES:
This paper describes the specific initiatives of the British Labour government to reduce child poverty and evaluates their potential impact. The extent of the problem of child poverty is set out, the causes are discussed and Britain’s problem is set in an international perspective. Policies that address long-term disadvantage are also discussed and future strategy is considered.

AUTHOR(S)

Holly Sutherland; David Piachaud
LANGUAGES:
Historical research on breastfeeding patterns, first carried out in the 1960s and early 1970s, was largely spurred by contemporary concerns about the potentially devastating effects of a massive shift from breastmilk to artificial means of infant feeding, especially in developing countries.

AUTHOR(S)

Sara Matthews Grieco; Carlo A. Corsini
LANGUAGES:
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