The Working Papers are the foundation of the Centre's research output, underpinning many of the Centre's other publications. These high quality research papers are aimed at an academic and well-informed audience, contributing to ongoing discussion on a wide range of child-related issues. More than 100 Working Papers have been published to date, with recent and forthcoming papers covering the full range of the Centre's agenda. The Working Papers series incorporates the earlier series of Innocenti Occasional Papers (with sub-series), also available for download.
Children and the Data Cycle:Rights and Ethics in a Big Data World
Berman, Gabrielle; Albright, Kerry (2017). Children and the Data Cycle:Rights and Ethics in a Big Data World, no. 2017-05, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, Florence
In an era of increasing dependence on data science and big data, the voices of one set of major stakeholders – the world’s children and those who advocate on their behalf – have been largely absent. A
recent paper estimates one in three global internet users is a child, yet there has been little rigorous debate or understanding of how to adapt traditional, offline ethical standards for research involving data collection from children, to a big data, online environment (Livingstone et al., 2015). This paper argues that due to the potential for severe, long-lasting and differential impacts on children, child rights need to be firmly integrated onto the agendas of global debates about ethics and data science. The authors outline their rationale for a greater focus on child rights and ethics in data science and suggest steps to move forward, focusing on the various actors within the data chain including data generators, collectors, analysts and end-users. It concludes by calling for a much stronger appreciation of the links between child rights, ethics and data science disciplines and for enhanced discourse between stakeholders in the data chain, and those responsible for upholding the rights of children, globally.
This study discusses the theoretical challenge posed in identifying the mechanisms that link institutions and equitable economic growth at various levels of aggregation. The relationship between governance modes and institutions on the one hand, and economic growth and development on the other hand, may take very different forms. This relates to the question of whether a single and unique combination of institutions and governance modes is optimal for (equitable) growth, or whether different governance modes and institutions may lead to good or equitable growth performance in different locations and historical contexts.
The European Union (EU) is currently in the process of developing child specific indicators of well-being that will be used to monitor progress towards achieving inclusive economic growth. Although a wide range of child sensitive indicators has been proposed in recent years, none of the measures is sensitive to (changes in) cumulative deprivation i.e. the degree to which a child simultaneously experiences a range of unfavourable conditions. Children’s current well-being is a key determinant of their future situation; more often than not, well-being in one domain (e.g. health) is complementary to well-being in another domain (e.g. education); and children also have little control over, or responsibility for, the factors determining their own well-being.
This paper focuses on the role played by independent human rights institutions for children in promoting children’s and adolescents’ participatory rights. It presents the conceptual and normative framework of participatory rights, including the approach of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The paper analyses the involvement of children and adolescents in the functioning of these institutions in Europe.
This paper provides an overview and analysis of the initial steps towards the establishment of a separate ombudsman for children in Turkey. Looking at children’s socio-economic conditions, the legal and political situation, as well as the perception of childhood in the country, it reviews the rationale for the creation of a children’s ombudsman. The paper then examines current processes from a child rights perspective, in particular with respect to the now cancelled general ombudsman law.
This working paper addresses the role, contribution and impact of independent human rights institutions for children (IHRICs), also referred to as children’s ombudspersons or children’s commissioners. It looks at these institutions from the perspective and jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (the Committee) and the global perspective on the perception of the child and childhood resulting from contributions of these institutions to the process of implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).
This paper presents an overview of the reporting process to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in relation to independent human rights institutions for children. It examines the Committee’s approach towards independent human rights institutions for children.
This paper analyses the extent to which international and ‘mixed’ or ‘hybrid’ criminal courts, in particular the International Criminal Court (ICC), have focused on crimes against children and dealt with children as victims, witnesses and potential offenders. The paper underlines the major role played recently by international courts, notably the Special Court for Sierra Leone, followed by the ICC, in criminalizing as war crimes the conscription or enlistment of children and their use to participate actively in hostilities. The Special Court was the first to hand down convictions for these crimes. The first cases before the ICC also concern the unlawful recruitment of children for their use in hostilities, bringing these crimes to the fore.
Burkina Faso’s hard earned economic gains in recent years have been eroded by the 2008-09 world financial and economic crisis. The country will particularly feel the effects of this crisis due to its close links with the world economy. Most of the adverse effects are transmitted to households and then passed onto children. The situation of children principally depends on the monetary and non-monetary wellbeing of their household. This, together with their greater vulnerability, means that children are at risk of suffering more, and for longer, from the impacts of the crisis. It is therefore crucial to understand and anticipate the effects that the crisis may have on children in Burkina Faso and to propose options for social protection to counter these effects.
Lacina Balma; John Cockburn; Ismaël Fofana; Samuel Kaboré; Luca Tiberti
The last several decades have witnessed a dramatic change in the methods of warfare. Civilians are now increasingly targets of violence, not just mere victims of collateral damage. Among civilians targeted, children and youth are subject to acts of violence, including enforced disappearances and enforced conscription.
Michele Harvey-Blankenship; Phuong N. Pham; Rachel Shigekane
This paper presents a short overview of the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children. It also reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves - for example, as child soldiers - and identifies some outstanding questions regarding their criminal responsibility for such acts.