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Unconditional cash transfers are on the rise in Sub-Saharan Africa, with recent estimates indicating a doubling of programmes between 2010 and 2014. This brief provides an overview of the comprehensive impacts across eight domains of two unconditional cash transfer programmes implemented by the Zambian Government: The Child Grant Programme (CGP) and the Multiple Category Targeting Programme (MCP). Although the primary objective of these programmes is poverty mitigation rather than economic empowerment, we document protective and productive outcomes in order to assess whether these programmes generate transformative effects and have the potential to offer a sustained pathway out of poverty for poor households.
Michelle Mills; Gean Spektor; Max Terzini
The annual workshop of the Transfer Project, “The State of Evidence on Social Cash Transfers in Africa” focused on new challenges arising from moving from fragmented programmes to integrated social protection systems, combining cash transfers with complementary (also referred to as ‘plus’) interventions, as well as the assessment of social protection in emergency contexts.
This year’s workshop was organized through the Transfer Project by the UNICEF West and Central Africa Regional Office (WCARO), UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill (UNC), in Dakar, Senegal, from 7 to 9 June 2017.
Approximately 125 social protection experts and stakeholders from over 30 countries gathered for the workshop to review the rigorous evidence from impact evaluations across Africa. In recognition of the complexity of this work and the continued growth of cash transfer programmes globally, the workshop brought together researchers, policymakers, and development partners to debate, discuss and reflect on current experiences, new evidence and future directions.
John A. Neetu; Kirsten Stoebenau; Samantha Ritter; Jeffrey Edmeades; Nikola Balvin
This brief summarizes the key insights and conclusions from a discussion paper on gender socialization during adolescence, with a focus on low- and middle-income settings. By reviewing theories from psychology, sociology and biology, significant societal changes and effective programme interventions, the paper sets out to provide a more holistic picture of the influences and outcomes of gender socialization for adolescent programming and policy.
Amber Peterman; Jennifer Yablonski; Silvio Daidone
Six common perceptions associated with
cash transfers are investigated using data from eight rigorous evaluations of
government unconditional cash transfer programmes across seven countries in
sub-Saharan Africa. The evidence refutes each claim. Used in policy debates,
these perceptions undermine well-being improvements and poverty reduction, in
Africa and globally.
Yekaterina Chzhen; Zlata Bruckauf
The attitudes that we hold are shaped and nurtured by society, institutions, religion and family; they involve feelings, beliefs and behaviours and represent a form of judgement. These attitudes and values define the power relations, dynamics, opportunities and choices between men and women, boys and girls. Societies vary significantly in the scale of egalitarian attitudes and beliefs related to gender roles and opportunities in education, politics, the family, and the workforce. Progress towards more egalitarian gender values is crucial for achieving gender equality among children and young people, which in turn is a pre-condition for sustainable development.
Mental health is increasingly gaining the spotlight in the media and public discourse of industrialized countries. The problem is not new, but thanks to more open discussions and fading stigma, it is emerging as one of the most critical concerns of public health today. Psychological problems among children and adolescents can be wide-ranging and may include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), disruptive conduct, anxiety, eating and mood disorders and other mental illnesses. Consistent evidence shows the links between adolescents’ mental health and the experience of bullying. Collecting internationally comparable data to measure mental health problems among children and adolescents will provide important evidence and stimulate governments to improve psychological support and services to vulnerable children.
Zlata Bruckauf; Nóirín Hayes
Early childhood development is a driving force for sustainable development due to its multiplier effects not only on children but also on the community and society at large. Access to ECEC alone is insufficient for achieving positive child outcomes – it must also be of high quality. This Brief aims to summarize the key points of ongoing debate on this issue, and outline some of the challenges faced by high-income countries. A step towards a more holistic monitoring of ECEC would be to develop a coherent national strategy that recognizes diversity while addressing disparities; to respond to the needs of both child and family through strong partnerships with parents and ECE practitioners; and to apply measurement tools that capture a child’s engagement rather than test readiness.
Zlata Bruckauf; Gwyther Rees
Evidence from national studies in developed and developing countries suggests that girls spend more time on housework. The most common explanation relates to behaviour modelling as a mechanism of gender role reproduction: children form habits based on parental models. This brief shows that participation in household chores is an essential part of children’s lives. There is a common pattern of a gender gap between boys’ and girls’ daily participation in housework across a diverse range of socio-economic and cultural contexts in 12 high-income countries. The persistence of this gap points to gender stereotyping – a form of gender role reproduction within a family that potentially can reinforce inequalities over the life-course.
Emilia Toczydlowska; Bina D'Costa
Bina D'Costa; Emilia Toczydlowska
Emilia Toczydlowska; Zlata Bruckauf
Nicola J. Reavley; Susan M. Sawyer
This brief introduces the methodological
series Conducting Research with Adolescents from low- and middle-income countries
(LMICs), outlining key research themes, intervention types, and their
associated methodological implications. It highlights adolescence as a critical
phase within the life course and a period of biological and social transition
that is itself undergoing change. It makes the case that new understandings
from neuroscience have important implications for programming; addressing social
and structural determinants is crucial to improving adolescent well-being;
inter-sectoral and comprehensive multi-component action is required, as is
matching action to need; and gender and equity should always be considered in
research, programmes and policy.
The brief is one of seven on research
methodologies, designed to expand and improve the conduct and interpretation of
research on adolescent health and well-being in LMICs. Building on the recent
Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing, these briefs provide an
overview of the methodological quality of research on adolescents. They cover
topics including: indicators and data sources; research ethics; research with
disadvantaged, vulnerable and/or marginalized populations; participatory
research; measuring enabling and protective systems for adolescent health; and
economic strengthening interventions for improving adolescent well-being.