Predictors of protective behaviours to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Predictors of protective behaviours to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
As vaccine availability has increased in much of the world, challenges remain related to acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, further compounded by global inequities in vaccine access and the emergence of new variants. As such, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be an important tool in slowing and preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. 
 
This series of rapid evidence assessments (REA), using the COM-B model as a theoretical framework, sought to understand the existing evidence about who delays or refuses COVID-19 vaccination and who does not adhere to NPI measures, why and in what contexts. The objective is to inform tailored policies and interventions that support vaccination acceptance and adoption of recommended NPI measures, drawing in the COM-B Behaviour Change Wheel. 

Demographics did not consistently predict non-adherence to protective behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of psychological capability, people with less COVID-19 knowledge are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and not adhere to social distancing. In terms of social opportunities, people who perceive less social normative pressure to engage in protective behaviours are more likely to not adhere to social distancing and mask wearing recommendations. In terms of reflective motivations, people who perceive the protective behaviour to be less effective are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and avoid mask wearing; people who perceive themselves to have less control over protective behaviours are less likely to adopt social distancing and mask wearing behaviours; and people who perceive themselves to be less susceptible to catching COVID-19 are more likely to avoid or refuse vaccination and to not adhere to mask wearing recommendations.
 
The series of REAs was used to develop an evidence-informed practical toolkit for policy makers and practitioners to inform decision making around future efforts to promote uptake and maintenance of some or all recommended NPIs to mitigate the spread of outbreaks of transmissible respiratory diseases, including potential new and emerging pandemic threats.   
Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, delay and refusal

Predictors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance, delay and refusal

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
As vaccine availability has increased in much of the world, challenges remain related to acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, further compounded by global inequities in vaccine access and the emergence of new variants. As such, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be an important tool in slowing and preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. 
 
This series of rapid evidence assessments (REA), using the COM-B model as a theoretical framework, sought to understand the existing evidence about who delays or refuses COVID-19 vaccination and who does not adhere to NPI measures, why and in what contexts. The objective is to inform tailored policies and interventions that support vaccination acceptance and adoption of recommended NPI measures, drawing in the COM-B Behaviour Change Wheel. 

Demographics did not consistently predict non-adherence to protective behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of psychological capability, people with less COVID-19 knowledge are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and not adhere to social distancing. In terms of social opportunities, people who perceive less social normative pressure to engage in protective behaviours are more likely to not adhere to social distancing and mask wearing recommendations. In terms of reflective motivations, people who perceive the protective behaviour to be less effective are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and avoid mask wearing; people who perceive themselves to have less control over protective behaviours are less likely to adopt social distancing and mask wearing behaviours; and people who perceive themselves to be less susceptible to catching COVID-19 are more likely to avoid or refuse vaccination and to not adhere to mask wearing recommendations.
 
The series of REAs was used to develop an evidence-informed practical toolkit for policy makers and practitioners to inform decision making around future efforts to promote uptake and maintenance of some or all recommended NPIs to mitigate the spread of outbreaks of transmissible respiratory diseases, including potential new and emerging pandemic threats.   
Predictors of social distancing to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Predictors of social distancing to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
As vaccine availability has increased in much of the world, challenges remain related to acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, further compounded by global inequities in vaccine access and the emergence of new variants. As such, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be an important tool in slowing and preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. 
 
This series of rapid evidence assessments (REA), using the COM-B model as a theoretical framework, sought to understand the existing evidence about who delays or refuses COVID-19 vaccination and who does not adhere to NPI measures, why and in what contexts. The objective is to inform tailored policies and interventions that support vaccination acceptance and adoption of recommended NPI measures, drawing in the COM-B Behaviour Change Wheel. 

Demographics did not consistently predict non-adherence to protective behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of psychological capability, people with less COVID-19 knowledge are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and not adhere to social distancing. In terms of social opportunities, people who perceive less social normative pressure to engage in protective behaviours are more likely to not adhere to social distancing and mask wearing recommendations. In terms of reflective motivations, people who perceive the protective behaviour to be less effective are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and avoid mask wearing; people who perceive themselves to have less control over protective behaviours are less likely to adopt social distancing and mask wearing behaviours; and people who perceive themselves to be less susceptible to catching COVID-19 are more likely to avoid or refuse vaccination and to not adhere to mask wearing recommendations.
 
The series of REAs was used to develop an evidence-informed practical toolkit for policy makers and practitioners to inform decision making around future efforts to promote uptake and maintenance of some or all recommended NPIs to mitigate the spread of outbreaks of transmissible respiratory diseases, including potential new and emerging pandemic threats.   
Predictors of self-isolating to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Predictors of self-isolating to prevent the community spread of SARS-COV-2

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
As vaccine availability has increased in much of the world, challenges remain related to acceptance and uptake of COVID-19 vaccines, further compounded by global inequities in vaccine access and the emergence of new variants. As such, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be an important tool in slowing and preventing the spread of SARS-CoV-2. 
 
This series of rapid evidence assessments (REA), using the COM-B model as a theoretical framework, sought to understand the existing evidence about who delays or refuses COVID-19 vaccination and who does not adhere to NPI measures, why and in what contexts. The objective is to inform tailored policies and interventions that support vaccination acceptance and adoption of recommended NPI measures, drawing in the COM-B Behaviour Change Wheel. 

Demographics did not consistently predict non-adherence to protective behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic. In terms of psychological capability, people with less COVID-19 knowledge are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and not adhere to social distancing. In terms of social opportunities, people who perceive less social normative pressure to engage in protective behaviours are more likely to not adhere to social distancing and mask wearing recommendations. In terms of reflective motivations, people who perceive the protective behaviour to be less effective are more likely to delay or refuse vaccination and avoid mask wearing; people who perceive themselves to have less control over protective behaviours are less likely to adopt social distancing and mask wearing behaviours; and people who perceive themselves to be less susceptible to catching COVID-19 are more likely to avoid or refuse vaccination and to not adhere to mask wearing recommendations.
 
The series of REAs was used to develop an evidence-informed practical toolkit for policy makers and practitioners to inform decision making around future efforts to promote uptake and maintenance of some or all recommended NPIs to mitigate the spread of outbreaks of transmissible respiratory diseases, including potential new and emerging pandemic threats.   
Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Togo

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Togo

AUTHOR(S)
Jessica Bergmann; Renaud Comba; Alexis Le Nestour; Komlan Nouwokpo Samati

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report

The Togolese government, through the education sector plan (ESP) 2014-2025, aims to achieve universal quality primary education. With this goal, they recognize the challenges in education access, participation and retention. School performances is among the areas by which they are understanding and addressing these challenges. 

What resources and contextual factors are associated with good school performances in Togo? By merging and analyzing existing administrative datasets in Togo, this report helps to identify positive deviant schools – those that outperform other schools despite sharing similar contexts and resources. 

Data Must Speak – a global initiative implemented since 2014 – aims to address the evidence gaps to mitigate the learning crisis using existing data. The DMS Positive Deviance research is co-created and co-implemented with Ministries of Education and key partners. DMS research relies on mixed methods and innovative approaches (i.e., positive deviance approach, behavioural sciences, implementation research and scaling science) to generate knowledge and practical lessons about ‘what works’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ to scale grassroots solutions for national policymakers and the broader international community of education stakeholders. 

DMS research is currently implemented in 14 countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Niger, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. 

Too little, too late: An assessment of public spending on children by age in 84 countries

Too little, too late: An assessment of public spending on children by age in 84 countries

AUTHOR(S)
Dominic Richardson; David Harris; Sophie Mackinder; John Hudson

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
This report is a first attempt to inform the development of comprehensive and integrated child policy portfolios globally, by mapping and reviewing how much public money is spent on children, how it is spent across different sectors, and if in the life course it is spent evenly across all countries with usable data. The report builds on previous work that was limited to high-income countries (OECD, 2009, 2011, 2023). Given the overwhelming evidence of the importance of early childhood development, this report focuses in particular on the patterns of expenditure choices on these earliest years. The purpose of this work is to assess how systems work for the average child with the aim of informing policymakers and stakeholders about adequacy, balance and coherence in the public policy portfolio for children.

Underinvestment in children – in good times or bad – is a slow-burning and fundamental crisis for development, and needs to be addressed with as equal urgency as conflict, COVID-19 and climate breakdown. Coordinated and corrective action is needed from development stakeholders and in domestic child policies now, if countries are to meet their obligations to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and make good on the promises of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Data Must Speak: Comprendre les facteurs de performance des écoles ivoiriennes

Data Must Speak: Comprendre les facteurs de performance des écoles ivoiriennes

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
Pour faire face aux défis auxquels son système éducatif est confronté, la Côte d’Ivoire a décidé, au-delà d’une analyse sectorielle classique, d’approfondir l’analyse des données existantes afin de trouver des solutions innovantes. Pour y parvenir, la Côte d’Ivoire a sollicité l’appui de l’UNICEF, dans le cadre de la recherche Data Must Speak (DMS), afin d’identifier des pratiques et des comportements modèles positifs. Quelles ressources et quels facteurs contextuels sont associés à de bonnes performances scolaires en Côte d’Ivoire ? En fusionnant et en analysant les bases de données administratives existantes en Côte d’Ivoire, ce rapport permet d'identifier les écoles modèles positives - celles qui obtiennent de meilleurs résultats que les autres écoles bien qu'elles partagent des contextes et des ressources similaires.  La recherche DMS sur les modèles positive est cocréée et mise en œuvre conjointement avec les ministères de l'Éducation et des partenaires clés. La recherche DMS s'appuie sur des méthodes mixtes et des approches innovantes (c'est-à-dire l'approche modèle positive, les sciences du comportement, la recherche sur la mise en œuvre et la science de la mise à l'échelle) pour générer des connaissances et des enseignements pratiques sur " ce qui fonctionne ", " pourquoi " et " comment " mettre à l'échelle des solutions locales pour les décideurs politiques nationaux et la communauté internationale travaillant dans le secteur de l'éducation. La recherche DMS est actuellement mise en œuvre dans 14 pays : Brésil, Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Éthiopie, Ghana, Madagascar, Mali, Népal, Niger, République démocratique populaire lao, République-Unie de Tanzanie, Tchad, Togo et Zambie. 
What works to increase uptake of childhood immunization: a rapid evidence assessment of the impact of interventions targeting caregivers, healthcare workers and communities

What works to increase uptake of childhood immunization: a rapid evidence assessment of the impact of interventions targeting caregivers, healthcare workers and communities

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Hickler; John O'Rourke; Andrea Yearwood; Greg Sheaf; Sergiu Tomsa; Viviane Bianco; Mario Mosquera; Shivit Bakrania

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
Vaccination is one of the most effective measures for preventing illness, disability and death among children. However, current vaccination coverage provides insufficient protection for all children, and deaths from vaccine-preventable diseases account for an estimated 21.7 per cent of deaths in children under 5 years old globally. 

This rapid evidence assessment (REA) looked at the global evidence regarding the  effectiveness of interventions to increase uptake of vaccination services. The findings have global relevance but were also used to make more specific recommendations to address challenges identified in consultations with UNICEF’s Europe and Central Asia Regional Office (ECARO). 
Teachers for All: Improving primary school teacher deployment in Zambia

Teachers for All: Improving primary school teacher deployment in Zambia

AUTHOR(S)
Mabruk Kabir

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report
The equitable and effective deployment of teachers is critical to achieving quality education for all. However, the uneven distribution of teachers – both across and within schools – contributes to significant disparities in class sizes and learning conditions. Recognizing the critical role that teachers play in learning, the Government of Zambia has committed to addressing teacher allocation through large-scale teacher recruitments. This report aims to provide policymakers an overview of the magnitude and distribution of teacher shortages, and inform ongoing efforts to address teacher shortages and improve teacher allocation. 
Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Ghana

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Ghana

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report

The Ministry of Education of Ghana (MoE) has developed the Education Sector Plan 2018–2030 (ESP) that establishes the vision for achieving equitable access to quality education and effectively managing education service delivery. Beyond traditional sector analysis, the MoE of Ghana is invested in deepening its use of existing data to enhance education quality. 

What resources and contextual factors are associated with school performance in Ghana? By merging and analyzing existing administrative datasets in Ghana, this report helps to identify positive deviant schools – those that outperform other schools despite sharing similar contexts and resources.   

Data Must Speak – a global initiative implemented since 2014 – aims to address the evidence gaps to mitigate the learning crisis using existing data. The DMS Positive Deviance research is co-created and co-implemented with Ministries of Education and key partners. DMS research relies on mixed methods and innovative approaches (i.e., positive deviance approach, behavioural sciences, implementation research and scaling science) to generate knowledge and practical lessons about ‘what works’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ to scale grassroots solutions for national policymakers and the broader international community of education stakeholders.   

DMS research is currently implemented in 14 countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Niger, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. 

Winning the Game: How Sport for Development supports the psychological well-being of adolescent refugees

Winning the Game: How Sport for Development supports the psychological well-being of adolescent refugees

AUTHOR(S)
Michelle Mills; Despina Karamperidou; Faith Martin

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report

In 2022, UNHCR estimated that 103 million people were forcibly displaced worldwide; in the same year, UNICEF further reported that 37 million of those displaced were children. Children and adolescents are more likely to have specific needs and vulnerabilities within the broader refugee population, which may affect their psychological well-being. In view of this, UNICEF Innocenti – Global Office of Research and Foresight and the Barça Foundation teamed up to investigate how Sport for Development (S4D) can be a positive intervention in the lives of refugee adolescents. The mixed-methods study was conducted in 2022 in two locations in Greece: Athens and the island of Lesvos, capturing the mental health profile of adolescent refugees (ages 11-19) and the key mechanisms of an S4D programme that may influence their psychological well-being. It builds upon previous research jointly carried out by the two organizations, providing key insights to improve the effectiveness of S4D programming (especially programmes that engage with young refugee populations), as well as recommendations for governments and donors that support S4D.

Our Future Pledge: An Agenda for Futures by Youth

Our Future Pledge: An Agenda for Futures by Youth

Published: 2023 Innocenti Research Report

Our planet is in crisis. Temperatures are rising, sea levels are increasing, and social inequalities are growing. 

Young people have the power to solve these challenges and shape the world we live in. But to do this, we need to look beyond the present and imagine the possibilities of tomorrow.  

#OurFuturePledge is a campaign by young people for young people that aims to build a more inclusive and sustainable future by increasing youth participation in foresight.

We invite you to share a short video, artwork, story or post on social media describing your vision for the future. Use the hashtag #OurFuturePledge and tag @UNICEFInnocenti. Join other young changemakers in a conversation about your hopes for the future and share your visions with a global audience. 

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