Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in The Gambia

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in The Gambia

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

The international standards for teaching time in a year are 880 hours. In The Gambia, dedicated teaching time in a year is 734 hours. This reduced time is exacerbated by teacher absenteeism that varies across the different regions in the country from 12 to 30%, and is a barrier to achieving the required learning outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic is compounding an already compromised learning and teaching environment in The Gambia. This Time to Teach study looks at four dimensions of teacher attendance: being in school; being punctual (i.e., not arriving late/leaving early); being in the classroom (while in school); and spending sufficient time on task (while in the classroom). It also identifies factors associated with teacher absenteeism at five different levels of the education system: national, subnational, community, school, and teacher. This report provides recommendations that may help strengthen the ministry’s efforts to improve teachers’ time on task in The Gambia. 

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 40
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Guinea-Bissau

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Guinea-Bissau

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Teacher absenteeism is one of the most troubling obstacles on the path toward universal access to learning opportunities at school. Over the past decades, studies have found that teacher absenteeism is particularly prevalent in certain parts of Africa. While Guinea-Bissau has not administered or taken part in regional or international efforts to systematically monitor and assess the rates of teacher absenteeism, the issue is noted in the 2017–2025 Education Sector Plan, which includes an aim to strengthen controls on teacher absenteeism. This Time to Teach study seeks to fill this important knowledge gap and support the Ministry of National Education and Higher Education in its efforts to strengthen the teachers’ role in school to increase their time on task. This study outlines the various forms of primary school teacher absenteeism (e.g., absence from school, classroom, teaching, etc.), explores teacher absenteeism from a systemic perspective and identifies factors at different levels of the education system that affect teacher attendance and time on task. It also identifies gaps in teacher policy and policy implementation linked to identified determinants of absenteeism and barriers to higher teacher attendance rates, and identifies promising practices and actionable policy recommendations on increasing teachers’ time on task.

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48
Playing the Game: A framework and toolkit for successful child focused sport for development programmes

Playing the Game: A framework and toolkit for successful child focused sport for development programmes

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

To identify best practices in S4D programming and achieve a stronger evidence base on how S4D interventions can work effectively, the Playing the Game report and Toolkit draw on ten qualitative in-depth case studies undertaken with S4D organizations operating in different world regions and across various contexts, programme goals and issue areas.

Findings from these ten case studies and the existing literature are brought together to develop an evidence-based guiding framework and Toolkit for S4D programming targeting children and youth.

 

Cite this publication | No. of pages: 134 | Thematic area: Education | Tags: child protection, empowerment, social development, sport
Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID-19

Reopening with Resilience: Lessons from remote learning during COVID-19

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

The COVID-19 pandemic led to school closures around the world, affecting almost 1.6 billion students. The effects of even short disruptions in a child’s schooling on their learning and well-being have been shown to be acute and long lasting. The capacities of education systems to respond to the crisis by delivering remote learning and support to children and families have been diverse yet uneven.

This report reviews the emerging evidence on remote learning throughout the global school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic to help guide decision-makers to build more effective, sustainable, and resilient education systems for current and future crises.

The Difference a Dollar a Day Makes: A Study of UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati Programme

The Difference a Dollar a Day Makes: A Study of UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati Programme

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
What difference does a dollar a day make? For the poorest households in Jordan, many of whom escaped conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic, UNICEF Jordan’s Hajati humanitarian cash transfer programme helps them keep their children in school, fed and clothed – all for less than one dollar per day. In fact, cash transfers have the potential to touch on myriad of child and household well-being outcomes beyond food security and schooling.
Economic Crisis and Child Well-being in the West and Central Africa Region

Economic Crisis and Child Well-being in the West and Central Africa Region

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
The COVID-19 pandemic that swept over the world from early 2020 has triggered both health and economic shocks of unprecedented proportions in recent memory. Some estimates suggest that the consequences of these shocks will likely erase most of the progress made in global development over the past two decades. Many countries now risk falling further behind the attainment of national and international development goals, including the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. Children are particularly vulnerable to the effects of these shocks due to their persistent higher levels of vulnerability, and the reality that school closures and other COVID-19 containment measures can be more damaging to children. 

This report examines the effect of previous economic crises on children’s well-being in UNICEF’s West and Central Africa Region (WCAR) and makes projections regarding the potential impacts of COVID-19-induced economic crises on priority indicators for the region. 
Reimagining Migration Responses in Somaliland and Puntland: Learning from migrant children and young people’s experiences. Summary Report

Reimagining Migration Responses in Somaliland and Puntland: Learning from migrant children and young people’s experiences. Summary Report

AUTHOR(S)
Olivia Bueno; Mark Gill; Lucy Hovil; Iolanda Genovese; Lawrence Oduma; Kamal Nidam Adan

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Migration is a regular feature of life in the Horn of Africa. It takes multiple forms and is driven by numerous factors, including personal aspirations, economic exclusion and forced displacement as a consequence of inter-ethnic communal violence or natural disasters.

As part of a regional research series and based specifically on 418 quantitative interviews carried out in 2019, with children and young people in Somaliland and Puntland, this report provides a deeper understanding of their perceptions and feelings around safety, well-being and their protective environments. It also provides a snapshot of their access to services and resources, and their trust in authorities and other service providers.

The report concludes by offering policy and programme recommendations that can help rethink child protection approaches for migrant children and young people.


Mind Matters: Lessons from past crises for child and adolescent mental health during COVID-19

Mind Matters: Lessons from past crises for child and adolescent mental health during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lorraine Sherr; Lucie Cluver; Mark Tomlinson; Priscilla Idele; Prerna Banati; David Anthony; Kathryn Roberts; Katharina Haag; Xanthe Hunt

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

COVID-19 is a crisis like no other in modern times. It has reached every population and community. While the evidence base is still nascent, this report looks at the impacts of disasters and past epidemics – such as Ebola, HIV, SARS/MERS and Zika – on child and adolescent mental health and psychosocial wellbeing, and examines how these insights can guide policies and progammes to support children, their families and communities during the current pandemic.

COVID-19 – its associated public health responses and social and economic impacts – is likely to have multiple deleterious effects on mental health, including elevated risks of anxiety and depression, trauma, loss of family and friends, violence, loneliness and social isolation. However, this pandemic also offers opportunities for positive coping and resilience.

While there is no magic formula to address the mental health and psychosocial impacts of crises, there are proven and promising interventions from past experiences to mitigate the impact today – especially for the most vulnerable children and adolescents. These include social protection, caregiver skills and support, community and social support, life skills and school based programmes, and specialized care, to name a few.



Cite this publication | No. of pages: 70 | Thematic area: Mental Health | Tags: mental health
Reimagining Migration Responses in Sudan: Learning from migrant children and young people’s experiences. Summary Report

Reimagining Migration Responses in Sudan: Learning from migrant children and young people’s experiences. Summary Report

AUTHOR(S)
Olivia Bueno; Mark Gill; Lucy Hovil; Iolanda Genovese; Tahani Elmobasher

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Migration is a regular feature of life in Sudan and the broader region. It takes multiple forms and is driven by numerous factors, including personal aspirations, curiosity, problems accessing a livelihood in the context of poverty and economic exclusion, and forced displacement stemming from political persecution, armed conflict, or natural disasters.

Children and young people make up a significant portion of the upwards of 3 million migrants in Sudan. Yet there is limited understanding of the ways in which children and young people view migration, or of the opportunities and risks that it poses for them.

As part of a regional research series, 467 quantitative interviews were conducted with children and young people in Sudan. The data from these interviews provide insights from children and young people themselves. Building on the findings, the research suggests a number of principles and concrete actions to create a more protective environment for children and young people on their migration journeys.


 What's next? Lessons on education recovery: Findings from a survey of Ministries of Education amid the COVID-19 pandemic

What's next? Lessons on education recovery: Findings from a survey of Ministries of Education amid the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Mathieu Brossard; Thomas Dreesen; Radhika Nagesh; Dita Nugroho; Rafael Pontuschka

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have collaborated in the third round of the Survey on National Education Responses to COVID-19 School Closures, administered by the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) and OECD to Ministry of Education officials. The questions covered four levels of education: preprimary, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary. While the first two rounds of the survey were implemented during the periods May–June and July–October 2020, respectively, the third round was implemented during the period February–June 2021. In total, 143 countries responded to the questionnaire. Thirty-one countries submitted responses to the OECD (“OECD survey”) and 112 countries responded to the UIS (“UIS survey”). Seven countries responded to both surveys. In these instances, the more complete set responses were used in analysis.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Mozambique

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Mozambique

AUTHOR(S)
Dita Nugroho; Despina Karamperidou

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Teacher attendance is one of the prerequisites on the path toward universal learning in developing countries. Over the past decades, however, studies from across the developing world have found national rates of teacher absenteeism that range from 3 to 27 per cent. Therefore, enhancing teachers’ presence in the classroom and ensuring that class time is spent teaching, can contribute significantly to the productivity and inclusive prosperity of a country.

This Time to Teach study collates and strengthens the evidence base on primary school teacher absenteeism in Mozambique. The study uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide critical insights into the factors that underpin the multiple forms of teacher absenteeism and time on task. It also examines how factors vary across countries, school types, gender of teacher and other teacher characteristics. Despite high levels of teacher absenteeism, the study shows that teachers are generally committed and that what is needed is education system strengthening. It is hoped that findings will inform workable solutions and policies that will ensure a motivated teaching force, increase opportunities for children to learn at school and, ultimately, improve their life and work opportunities.

Hora de ensinar: Assiduidade dos Professores e Tempo de Trabalho nas Escolas Primárias de Moçambique

Hora de ensinar: Assiduidade dos Professores e Tempo de Trabalho nas Escolas Primárias de Moçambique

AUTHOR(S)
Despina Karamperidou; Dita Nugroho

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report

Este estudo “Hora de Ensinar” combina e reforça a base de evidências sobre o absentismo dos professores do ensino primário em Moçambique.

A assiduidade dos professores é um dos pré-requisitos indispensáveis à aprendizagem universal nos países em desenvolvimento. Nas últimas décadas, contudo, estudos realizados em todo o mundo em desenvolvimento constataram taxas nacionais de absentismo dos professores que variam entre 3 e 27%. Por conseguinte, reforçar a presença dos professores na sala de aula e assegurar que o tempo de aula é dedicado ao ensino, pode contribuir significativamente para a produtividade e prosperidade inclusiva de um país.  

O estudo utiliza uma mistura de métodos de pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa para fornecer uma visão crítica dos factores que sustentam as várias formas de absentismo dos professores e o tempo de trabalho. Também examina como os factores variam entre países, tipos de escolas, género do professor e outras características do professor. Apesar dos elevados níveis de absentismo dos professores, o estudo mostra que estes estão geralmente empenhados e que o que é necessário é o reforço do sistema educativo. Espera-se que os resultados informem soluções e políticas viáveis que assegurem uma mão-de-obra docente motivada, aumentem as oportunidades para as crianças aprenderem na escola e, em última análise, melhorem as suas vidas e oportunidades de trabalho.

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