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Adolescent wellbeing

Adolescent wellbeing

Despite great strides in improving overall child well-being, progress has been slower in key areas of adolescent vulnerability, including exposure to violence, early marriage and school completion, especially among adolescent girls. The Lancet Commission ‘Our Future’ (2016) has examined the rapidly changing social and structural determinants of adolescent well-being and their implications on health promotion and prevention work.  It stresses the importance of adolescence as a critical period of formative growth that affects well-being across the life course. Although evidence is building in some domains of adolescent’s lives, greater understanding of the transition to adulthood and how different underlying factors interact is needed in order to inform the basis for effective programming and policy. The need to incorporate consideration of different structural factors into programme design is gaining support, yet there is still little guidance on systematic evidence-based approaches to employ in practice.

The Adolescent Research Programme is advancing global understandings of adolescent well-being in selected countries and themes by defining the drivers of well-being outcomes (‘causes and consequences’) and examining effective policy and programme interventions (‘what works’).

Research Priorities 2014 – 2018
• Rigorous evidence generation on structural and social determinants of adolescent wellbeing across sectors and throughout the life course.
• Understanding formal institutions, systems and policy processes as well as social and cultural norms affecting behaviours and policy implementation.
• Analytical focus on age and gender gaps to shed light on the main drivers of adolescent vulnerability.

Global Research Partnership
Together with UK Department of International Development, Italy, SIDA, UNICEF as well as US Department of Labour, the Oak Foundation, and others, the global research partnership is working with multiple national governments and institutions to improve understandings of various dimensions of adolescents’ lives.
The programme is linked to the Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence initiative. It leverages UNICEF’s programme technical capacity as well as networks of regional and country offices and implementing partners in low and middle income countries.
Drawing on multi –disciplinary research expertise, the UNICEF programme has produced cutting edge research that explores what works to improve outcomes for adolescents.
Quality evidence is having impact - informing effective policy and interventions in focus countries and beyond.

Publications

Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 16
Publication Publication

Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 16

The Adolescence Research Digest is a quarterly publication of UNICEF’s Office of Research-Innocenti. It synthesizes the latest research evidence, resources and news related to adolescent well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Adolescence is a critically sensitive period in terms of growth and maturity with many rapid transitions about which too little is currently known. The Digest aims to promote awareness and uptake of new adolescent well-being research findings amongst UNICEF staff, practitioners, policymakers and academics in the development and humanitarian sectors.
Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 15
Publication Publication

Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 15

The Adolescence Research Digest is a quarterly publication of UNICEF’s Office of Research-Innocenti. It synthesizes the latest research evidence, resources and news related to adolescent well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Adolescence is a critically sensitive period in terms of growth and maturity with many rapid transitions about which too little is currently known. The Digest aims to promote awareness and uptake of new adolescent well-being research findings amongst UNICEF staff, practitioners, policymakers and academics in the development and humanitarian sectors.
Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 14
Publication Publication

Innocenti Research Digest on Adolescence 14

The Adolescence Research Digest is a quarterly publication of UNICEF’s Office of Research-Innocenti. It synthesizes the latest research evidence, resources and news related to adolescent well-being in low- and middle-income countries. Adolescence is a critically sensitive period in terms of growth and maturity with many rapid transitions about which too little is currently known. The Digest aims to promote awareness and uptake of new adolescent well-being research findings amongst UNICEF staff, practitioners, policymakers and academics in the development and humanitarian sectors.

Journal Articles

Uptake of HIV testing among adolescents and associated adolescent-friendly services
Journal Article Journal Article

Uptake of HIV testing among adolescents and associated adolescent-friendly services

HIV testing remains low among adolescents. Making public health services more adolescent-friendly is one strategy used to encourage testing. However, it remains unclear whether government-led initiatives have a meaningfully impact. The current study is observational and utilizes two sources of data (health-facility and adolescent-level) from one round of data collection of an on-going, longitudinal impact evaluation of a pilot cash plus program targeting adolescents. This study linked data from adolescent surveys (n = 2191) to data collected from nearby government-run health facilities (n = 91) in two rural regions of Tanzania. We used log binomial regression models to estimate the association between specific adolescent-friendly health service (AFHS) characteristics and adolescents’ uptake of 1) HIV testing and 2) visiting a health care facility in the past year for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Most adolescents (67%) lived in a village with a health facility, and all offered HIV services. We find, however, that AFHS have not been fully implemented. For example, less than 40% of facilities reported that they had guidelines for adolescent care. Only 12% of facilities had a system in place for referral and follow-up with adolescent clients, yet this was an important predictor of both past-year HIV testing (RR = 1.28, p < 0.1) and SRH visits (RR = 1.44, p < 0.05). Less than half (44%) offered services for survivors of gender-based violence (GBV), a significant predictor of past-year HIV testing (RR = 1.20, p < 0.05) and SRH visits (RR = 1.41, p < 0.01) among sexuallyactive adolescents.We find that national guidelines on AFHS have not been fully translated into practice at the local level. We highlight particular gaps in adolescent referral systems and GBV services. Scaling up these two essential services could encourage greater HIV testing among a high-risk population, in addition to providing much needed support for survivors of violence.
Aligning evidence generation and use across health, development, and environment
Journal Article Journal Article

Aligning evidence generation and use across health, development, and environment

Although health, development, and environment challenges are interconnected, evidence remains fractured across sectors due to methodological and conceptual differences in research and practice. Aligned methods are needed to support Sustainable Development Goal advances and similar agendas. The Bridge Collaborative, an emergent research-practice collaboration, presents principles and recommendations that help harmonize methods for evidence generation and use. Recommendations were generated in the context of designing and evaluating evidence of impact for interventions related to five global challenges (stabilizing the global climate, making food production sustainable, decreasing air pollution and respiratory disease, improving sanitation and water security, and solving hunger and malnutrition) and serve as a starting point for further iteration and testing in a broader set of contexts and disciplines. We adopted six principles and emphasize three methodological recommendations: (1) creation of compatible results chains, (2) consideration of all relevant types of evidence, and (3) evaluation of strength of evidence using a unified rubric. We provide detailed suggestions for how these recommendations can be applied in practice, streamlining efforts to apply multi-objective approaches and/or synthesize evidence in multidisciplinary or transdisciplinary teams. These recommendations advance the necessary process of reconciling existing evidence standards in health, development, and environment, and initiate a common basis for integrated evidence generation and use in research, practice, and policy design.
Children’s Roles in Social Reproduction: reexamining the discourse on care through a child lens
Journal Article Journal Article

Children’s Roles in Social Reproduction: reexamining the discourse on care through a child lens

Care and domestic work have gained attention in the global policy discourse, particularly following feminist research and activism showing its burden for women. However, these debates and political demands have generally overlooked children’s contribution to social reproduction within and beyond the household. Empirical evidence shows that many children assume care and domestic responsibilities from an early age, with an increasingly gendered pattern as they grow. While such work can provide a learning opportunity, the time, energy and emotional labour put into it can be detrimental to their wellbeing. In this article, we review the empirical evidence on children’s care and domestic work in developing countries, and argue that understanding children’s roles in these tasks can complement the existing social reproduction scholarship, uncovering the intra-household and intergenerational distribution of care and domestic responsibilities, its determinants and effects on child wellbeing. We conclude by noting key conceptual and evidence gaps, and suggesting future research directions. 

News & Commentary

Quick summary of latest Innocenti Research Digest | Adolescence, #6
Article Article

Quick summary of latest Innocenti Research Digest | Adolescence, #6

(13 July 2017) The latest edition of Innocenti Research Digest | Adolescence includes compelling research, resources, news and events that address the issue of gender from many perspectives that will benefit the work of colleagues within and outside of the UN, on behalf of the world’s 1.2 billion adolescent girls and boys. We are pleased to make the digest available for the first time in three languages – English, French and Spanish. This article provides a condensed selection of the research, resources, news, event, online courses included in the digest. To access the full contents of this highly useful publication visit here.LATEST RESEARCH Building the Foundations for Sustainable Development: a Case for Global Investment in the Capabilities of Adolescents, Sheehan, P. et al., The Lancet, April 2017.   Cost-benefit analyses show that global investments in adolescent’s capabilities can result in high economic and social returns. Child and Adolescent Health from 1990 to 2015: Findings from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study ,The Global Burden of Disease Child and Adolescent Health Collaboration, JAMA Pediatrics, June 2017.   Trends in mortality and non-fatal health loss across 195 countries, show significant global decreases in child and adolescent mortality: from 14.18 million deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million deaths in 2015. Mapping the Knowledge and Understanding of Menarche, Menstrual Hygiene and Menstrual Health among Adolescent Girls in Low- and Middle-income Countries, Chandra-Mouli, V. and Patel, S., Reproductive Health, March 2017.   Unlike other normal bodily processes, menstruation is still surrounded by widespread stigma, lack of understanding and poor sanitary practices. The Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs of Very Young Adolescents Aged 10–14 In Developing Countries: What Does the Evidence Show? Woog, V. and Kågesten, A., Guttmacher Institute, May 2017.   Very early adolescence, defined as the years from 10 to 14, is a critical time to lay the foundations for positive sexual and reproductive health outcomes. Understanding the Linkages between Social Safety Nets and Childhood Violence: A Review of the Evidence from Low- and Middle-income Countries, Peterman, A. et al., Health Policy and Planning, April 2017.   A review of 14 impact evaluations of social safety nets (SSNs) finds they have the potential to reduce violence against children, but there remain large gaps in our understanding across typologies of violence, region and programme design. Children participate in a group counselling session, at the Dagoretti Child Development Centre, in the Mutuini area of the Dagoretti division of Nairobi, Kenya. State of the Evidence: A Systematic Review of Approaches to Reduce Gender-Based Violence and Support the Empowerment of Adolescent Girls in Humanitarian Settings, Noble E. et al., Trauma, Violence and Abuse, March 2017.   This systematic review examines the evidence base for programming that seeks to reduce violence against adolescent girls in humanitarian contexts. Pathways between Childhood Trauma, Intimate Partner Violence, and Harsh Parenting: Findings from the United Nations (UN) Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific, Fulu, E. et al., The Lancet Global Health, May 2017.   A recent UN multi-country study in Asia and the Pacific identifies significant, often gendered, pathways that connect childhood trauma, intimate partner violence (IPV), and harsh parenting. Girl Child Marriage as a Risk Factor for Early Childhood Development and Stunting, Efevbera Y. et al., Social Science & Medicine, May 2017.   Data from 16 countries across sub-Saharan Africa confirms that girl child marriage is a risk factor for early childhood development and health.Effects of Public Policy on Child Labor: Current Knowledge, Gaps and Implications for Programme Design, Dammert, A. et al., World Bank Group, Policy Research Working Paper, March 2017.   Anti-poverty programmes have strong potential to improve schooling outcomes and reduce child labour. Financial Education’s Contribution to Girls’ Economic Empowerment: A Global Review, Singh, J. and Schneiders, M., Aflatoun International, March 2017.   Education programmes on girl’s economic empowerment are more robust when they combine financial components with social and health components, such as social education, sexual and reproductive health education, and vocational training. Download policy brief [pdf] Las Violencias en el Espacio Escolar (Violence in School Spaces) Trucco, D. and Inostroza, P., Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), March 2017.   Learning outcomes are directly affected by levels of violence in schools, with peer victimization being the main source of classroom violence. A Systematic Review of Positive Youth Development (PYD) Programmes in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, YouthPower Learning, April 2017.   This review documents the use and effectiveness of Positive Youth development (PYD) approaches in 97 programmes across 60 Low and Middle-income Countries. RESOURCESUNICEF Innocenti’s New Series of Briefs on How to Conduct Research with Adolescents – Developed by UNICEF, experts from Columbia University and the Lancet Commission on Adolescent Health and Wellbeing, these seven evidence briefs provide a review of contemporary research methodologies for adolescent well-being in low-and middle-income countries. World Health Organisation (WHO) Guidance on Improving Adolescent Health – According to a new report by WHO Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!), more than 3,000 adolescents die every day from largely preventable causes, such as road injuries, respiratory infections, self-harm. UNICEF Report on Protecting Children on the Move from Violence, Abuse and Exploitation – In 2015-2016, at least 300,000 unaccompanied children and adolescents were recorded in over 80 countries.UNESCO Recommendations to the Education Sector on Early and Unintended Pregnancy – Evidence shows that the education sector has a critical role to play in preventing unintended pregnancy and ensuring pregnant and parenting girls can return to school. Child Fund Alliance’s Review of official development spending to end violence against children – The first official development assistance (ODA) review of its kind, reveals that only 0.6% out of a total $174 billion global ODA budget was allocated to ending violence against children (VAC) in 2015 – equating to less than $0.65 per child in recipient countries. Full report, Infographic and Executive Summary are available online.A teacher playing with young girls in UNICEF supported school in Jalozai camp, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan.Young Lives’ Guide to Longitudinal Research – The Young Lives team provides insight into the methods and processes involved in carrying out a multi-country longitudinal study with young people. MEASURE Evaluation Guidelines on Best Practices for Adolescent- and Youth-friendly HIV Services – Developed by the USAID-funded MEASURE Evaluation, these guidelines are informed by a review of 13 projects offering adolescent and youth-friendly HIV services. Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) Toolkit – The GEAS toolkit includes research tools developed as part of an international study to understand the factors that predispose adolescents, aged 10-14, to sexual health risks. The tools include a parent/guardian questionnaire, a gender norms instrument, a vignette-based measure of gender equality, and a Health+ instrument. The Impact Initiatives’ Key Issues Guide on Research with Children and Young PeopleThis review draws on a synthesis of research outputs by the Economic and Social Research Council and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). Key insights and recommended reading are shared on: livelihoods and aspirations; mobile technology; access to education; improving outcomes in food, nutrition and health choices.NEWSCall on G7 leaders to Better Protect Refugee and Migrant Children – On the occasion of the G7 world leaders’ meeting in Sicily on 26-27 May, UNICEF urged governments to adopt a six-point agenda for action in order to protect and guarantee the rights of children as they move. The Lancet launches a new journal on Child and Adolescent Health – The newly released monthly journal, Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, publishes research or evidence-based reviews that will directly impact clinical practice or child health across the disciplines of paediatrics, adolescent medicine, and child development. Full details on how to submit a paper hereNew Guidelines for Children in the Justice System released – Guidelines for treating young people who come into contact with the justice system have been released by the International Association of Youth and Family Judges and Magistrates. Instructions cover all interventions of justice systems prior, pending or following judicial interventions.Menstrual Hygiene Day – Online resources available – On Menstrual Hygiene Day (28 May), organizations around the world promoted campaigns to raise awareness about good hygiene management for adolescent girls. A collection of campaign materials and resources on menstrual hygiene management can be found on the Menstrual Hygiene Day website.UNESCO Report on Youth and Violent Extremism in Morocco – A recent UNESCO report on violent extremism in Morocco urges national and international authorities to act jointly to prevent adolescents becoming victims of radical recruitment. Working groups made policy recommendations for addressing youth radicalization in schools and the media, providing jobs and economic opportunities, and increasing civic engagement. Call to Action on Violence and Child Pregnancy in Latin America and the Caribbean – The Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence against Women, known as the Convention of Belém do Pará, has launched the Hemispheric Report on Sexual Violence and Child Pregnancy.Innovative Research on Gender-based Violence (GBV) - Innovations aimed at preventing GBV were awarded special recognition by WHO and SRVI. EVENTSUnited Nations Youth-dedicated Days - In June the UN celebrates World Refugee Day and the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict. Adolescent-related UN actions and useful resources can be consulted on the respective websites. Then, 15 July is World Youth Skills Day, while 12 August is International Youth Day , focusing this year on peace building and social justice.International Society for Child Indicators Conference – This conference will discuss the latest child indicator research and implications. The theme is ‘Children in a World of Opportunities: innovations in research, policy and practice’. Organizers: McGill University, Date: 28-30 June 2017, Montreal. Registration‘Girl Up’ Leadership Summit – More than 300 girl advocates from around the world will convene for the sixth annual Girl Up Leadership Summit.Sexual Violence Research Initiative (SVRI) Forum 2017 – This forum will showcase research and innovation on sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and child abuse and maltreatment. Organizers: Sexual Violence Research Initiative; Date: 18-21 September 2017. Location: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil RegistrationONLINE COURSESEngaging Men and Boys in Gender Equality Programming – This e-learning course will examine concepts of masculinity, patriarchy and intersectionality. Organizers: The Global Human Rights Education and Training Centre (HREA). Date: 11 October – 21 November 2017 Registration To read the full digest with additional resources, comment and information download [here].
Adolescents may be less resilient to catastrophic events than previously thought
Article Article

Adolescents may be less resilient to catastrophic events than previously thought

(31 October 2017) Experts recently gathered in Florence to discuss emerging evidence on the effects of famines and other shock events on adolescents’ growth, survival, and education. The two-day workshop, organized in light of emerging analysis on the vulnerability of adolescents during periods of famine, brought together leading researchers to analyse the existing evidence base and improve programming for adolescents in humanitarian disasters.A young woman prepares a meal of weed leaves for her family, Nyumanzi Refugee Settlement, Adjumani District, South Sudan.  “We’re really at the beginning of a process here, but already some of the things we’ve been discussing… for example… how the onset of puberty can be affected by the diet of children, can have direct implications for how we programme,” said Laurence Chandy Director of UNICEF’s division of data, research and policy. “Traditionally, this idea that we should be focussing on the very early years – because that signifies the greatest vulnerability – might not be right, so I can see significant implications for our programming.”The 26 – 27 October 2017 workshop and roundtable brought together researchers and economists as well as UNICEF nutrition specialists to share their latest research on famines and adolescents, and to brainstorm how to improve linkages between research and programming to achieve better results for children. The meeting was hosted by UNICEF Innocenti, with support from the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.[Read blog post documenting stunting among adolescent girls exposed to famine]Jose Cuesta, Social Policy Chief at UNICEF Innocenti, organised the workshop after identifying a need for more research on how adolescents are affected by ‘shock’ events. “As part of our work on adolescents, we have found that there is a gap of evidence on how catastrophic shocks affect them,” he said. “We have plenty of evidence of how these shocks affect younger children, but there is really a dearth of evidence for older children specifically – for adolescents.”“The objective of this workshop is to … share the evidence that is out there… from the economists, psychologists, nutritionists point of view. The second objective is to reflect on how we can do better,” Cuesta added. “We can improve our methodology, we can also improve our data collection, and we can improve how we evaluate specifically for adolescents. The idea is to reflect on these different possibilities and come up with a collective strategy…” As for next steps, Cuesta stressed there is still need for agreement on how to move forward collectively to improve data collection. The workshop began with a presentation by Richard Akresh of the University of Illinois on the ground-breaking study on first and second-generation impacts of the Biafran War. The study set the tone of the workshop by identifying short and long-term impacts on women and children of the 1967-1970 Nigerian Civil War, providing first evidence of intergenerational impacts, with the largest impacts stemming from adolescent exposure to war.  This study inspired other studies conducted since then uncovering effects of catastrophic events on adolescents.Stephen Devereux, a Fellow at the Institute of Development Studies, led a session on how to best improve the current evidence base. He examined key knowledge gaps and how to address them, including limitations on existing data and whether it’s possible to collect good data during disasters. Devereux noted that the workshop demonstrated a clear need for a mixed-methods research approach.  “Quantitative research measures impacts, but doesn’t explain. Adding qualitative research to create a cross-disciplinary approach presents an opportunity to frame the picture better,” he said. “This is an area where UNICEF is committed to understanding more, bringing together both research on adolescents and also increasing work on the humanitarian sector,” said Laurence Chandy. “[Adolescence] is a field where evidence has traditionally been very limited and I’m excited to see opportunities for UNICEF to be investing in evidence generation in the humanitarian sector.” 
Evidence Gap Map of research on Adolescent Well-being in low and middle income countries
Article Article

Evidence Gap Map of research on Adolescent Well-being in low and middle income countries

(18 December 2017) UNICEF Innocenti has just launched a new evidence gap map on adolescent well-being.  The research project maps evidence from evaluated interventions in in low- and middle-income countries against outcomes in three domains of adolescent well-being: protection, participation, and financial and material well-being.  The gap map helps to describe where evidence for programming and policy exists, where it is scarce, and where evidence is missing. Identifying the gaps helps UNICEF determine where more primary research or further synthesis is needed to improve programmes and policies for adolescents. The results of the mapping study include an in-depth report on the evidence gaps and an interactive online tool which visualizes the results of the mapping study, both informed by the study protocol.A group of high school girls in Lilongwe, Malawi puts up a performance during at a meeting to promote HIV and AIDS awareness. “Research syntheses are important for helping us make decisions based on a body of evidence rather than just on single studies,” said Nikola Balvin, the knowledge management specialist focusing on adolescent research at UNICEF Innocenti who developed and managed the Evidence Gap Map project.[Online tool: The Evidence Gap Map on Adolescent Well-being]“It is a mapping tool which synthesizes existing evidence on interventions targeting adolescents in these three domains (protection, participation, and financial and material well-being). We did it because there was nothing else focusing on these domains. This gap map brings together interventions focusing on adolescents in low- and middle- income countries and it maps what exists so we know where the gaps are,” she added.Methodology and FindingsThe evidence gap map identified 74 studies, including 71 impact evaluations and 3 systematic reviews, that met the inclusion criteria. The study found that evidence is most abundant at the individual and inter-personal level, and the most frequent intervention is financial support to individuals and households, with the majority of interventions including cash transfers.  “A lot of really interesting trends emerged. The most interesting is probably where the gaps are. The first thing you see when you look at the gap map is that there is hardly anything – hardly any evaluated interventions at the institutional and policy level – so that is a big gap,” Balvin said,  highlighting how the results point clearly gaps in evidence base. “In terms of outcome areas, another big gap is seen in information and communication technology – which is especially significant considering how much adolescents are plugged into the online world. So we know very little about the level of impact interventions using these online platforms are having on adolescents, which is a big gap” she added. PODCAST: Developing the Evidence Gap Map for Adolescent Well-Being VIDEO TUTORIAL: How to use the Evidence Gap Map Online Tool  Learn more:UNICEF Innocenti’s research on adolescent well-beingOnline tool: The Evidence Gap Map on Adolescent Well-beingReport: Bridging the gap to understand effective interventions for adolescent well-being: An evidence gap map on protection, participation, and financial and material well-being in low- and middle-income countriesStudy Protocol: An evidence gap map on adolescent well-being in low- and middle-income countries: A focus on the domains of protection, participation, and financial and material wellbeing

Events

Inaugural UNICEF Innocenti Film Festival
Event Event

Inaugural UNICEF Innocenti Film Festival

27-29 October 2019 - Thirty two films from 28 countries were screened over three days, receiving enthusiastic reception from audiences. Apart from the diversity and quality of the film programme, a highlight of the festival was the panel discussions which featured dialogue between film directors and UNICEF child rights research experts.

Project team

Elena Camilletti

UNICEF Innocenti

Amber Peterman

UNICEF Innocenti

Partners

Videos

Research watch

Are we failing adolescent girls?

Will there be an AIDS-free generation?

Conferences & Meetings

Social Protection “Plus” Workshop

Adolescence, Youth and Gender: Building Knowledge for Change

Care Work and Children: An Expert Roundtable 

Related

Innocenti Project(s) 2014-2015:

An operational structural determinants framework for adolescents

PROJECTS ARCHIVE

Topics

Adolescents

Blogs

Can data help end corporal punishment?

Supporting families and parents in a rapidly changing world

Are we failing adolescents?

Commentaries

Adolescent Digest Review: One youth's perspective

Podcasts

Nikola Balvin on Gender Socialization During Adolescence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Adolescent Development Research: new developments and how they can create better policy-making

Toolkits

The Adolescent Brain: A Second Window of Opportunity - a compendium

Journal articles

Understanding the Relationships Between HIV and Child Marriage: Conclusions From an Expert Consultation

Children’s Roles in Social Reproduction: reexamining the discourse on care through a child lens

What's new

Handbook on adolescent development research published

Related external links

Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and its Impact on Global Policy

UNICEF Data on Adolescents

UNICEF Adolescents and Youth

External website

UNICEF Gender