A Glossary that provides non-specialists with an understanding of child rights terminology, particularly related to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Glossary legenda
Example:

Abduction  IRC site
   CRC = 35 1
Note:
The right of the child to protection against abduction is set forth in Article 35 of the CRC. States Parties are required to take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of children for any purpose or in any form. The abduction of children is to be distinguished from the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad (see Article 11 of the CRC). The abduction of children within one country or across frontiers for the purposes of, for example, economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, sale, trafficking or adoption is a form of exploitation. The illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad refers to the problem of the abduction of children across frontiers by one of their parents.
See also:
Disappearances   Exploitation   Illicit transfer and non-return   Recovery and reintegration   Sale and trafficking   



Abduction Term
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Except for obvious exceptions, such as the "Right to life" and the "Right to be heard", the terms in the Glossary are not formulated as rights. Under each term, however, the article of the Convention dealing with the corresponding right of the child is mentioned, if appropriate ("CRC:"), and a short description is given of the corresponding obligations of States Parties ("Note:"), followed by a listing of related terms in the Glossary ("See also:") linked to the Thesaurus descriptors. Certain terms have also been included as "lead-in" terms only to preferred synonyms. For instance, the reader searching under the term "Handicapped children", will be referred ("See:") to "Disabled children".
 

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Name

CRC Article = 7(1)
Note:
The right of the child to a name from birth is recognized in Article 7(1) of the CRC. The purpose of this provision is to promote recognition and protection of the child's legal personality. It is of fundamental importance, as a name is the first point of reference both for the child and society as a means of identifying the child and the child's family. It is therefore of special importance to children born out of wedlock, abandoned children and foundlings.

See also:
Birth registration   Children born out of wedlock   Family relations   Identity   Nationality   Preservation of identity   

National adoption

CRC Article = 21
Note:
Adoption which does not involve removal of the child across borders. Article 21 of the CRC deals with the safeguards and standards to be ensured by those States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption as an alternative means of child's care, covering both national adoption and intercountry adoption, and provides thereby that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration. Noteworthy is the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles Relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children With Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1986.

See also:
Adoption   Inter-country adoption   Intercountry adoption   Judicial review   Procedures   

National origin

CRC =

See:
Discrimination   

National security

CRC =

See:
Restrictions of rights   

Nationality

CRC Article = 7
Note:
The right of the child to acquire a nationality is set forth in Article 7 of the CRC. Some countries apply the principle of jus sanguinis, according to which nationality is founded by descent from parents. Others apply the principle of jus soli, according to which nationality is founded by virtue of being born within the territory of a State.

See also:
Family relations   Identity   Name   Preservation of identity   Statelessness   

Neglect

CRC Article = 19

See:
Abuse and neglect   

Non-custodial measures

CRC Article = 40(4)
Note:
States Parties are required to make alternatives to institutional care available for convicted children to ensure that these children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence. Such non-custodial measures could include, inter alia, care, guidance, supervision orders, counselling, probation, education and vocational training programmes.

See also:
Administration of Juvenile Justice   Convicted children   Deprivation of liberty   Detention   Imprisonment   Treatment of convicted children   

Non-discrimination

CRC =

See:
Discrimination   

Non-governmental organizations

CRC =
Note:
Under Article 45(a) of the CRC, the Committee on the Rights of the Child may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it considers appropriate, including inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations, to provide expert advice on the implementation of the CRC in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may also transmit to such bodies, as it considers appropriate, any State reports that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance (see Article 45(b) of the CRC).

See also:
Committee on the Rights of the Child   Competent bodies   Inter-governmental organizations   Technical advice and assistance   

Nullum crimen sine lege

CRC Article = 40(2)(a)
Note:
Article 40(2)(a) of the CRC accords to the child the right not to be accused of or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reasons of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Convicted children