A Glossary that provides non-specialists with an understanding of child rights terminology, particularly related to the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Glossary legenda
Example:

Abduction  IRC site
   CRC = 35 1
Note:
The right of the child to protection against abduction is set forth in Article 35 of the CRC. States Parties are required to take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of children for any purpose or in any form. The abduction of children is to be distinguished from the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad (see Article 11 of the CRC). The abduction of children within one country or across frontiers for the purposes of, for example, economic exploitation, sexual exploitation, sale, trafficking or adoption is a form of exploitation. The illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad refers to the problem of the abduction of children across frontiers by one of their parents.
See also:
Disappearances   Exploitation   Illicit transfer and non-return   Recovery and reintegration   Sale and trafficking   



Abduction Term
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Except for obvious exceptions, such as the "Right to life" and the "Right to be heard", the terms in the Glossary are not formulated as rights. Under each term, however, the article of the Convention dealing with the corresponding right of the child is mentioned, if appropriate ("CRC:"), and a short description is given of the corresponding obligations of States Parties ("Note:"), followed by a listing of related terms in the Glossary ("See also:") linked to the Thesaurus descriptors. Certain terms have also been included as "lead-in" terms only to preferred synonyms. For instance, the reader searching under the term "Handicapped children", will be referred ("See:") to "Disabled children".
 

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Racial discrimination

CRC =

See:
Discrimination   

Ratification

CRC Article = 47
Note:
Article 47 of the CRC provides that the CRC is subject to ratification, and Article 48 provides that the CRC remains open for accession by any State. To become a Party to the CRC, a State must therefore either ratify or accede to the CRC. Ratification and accession both refer to the act whereby the competent authorities of the State express their consent to be bound by the CRC. The only difference is that ratification applies to those States that have signed the CRC and accession applies to those States that have not. The instruments of ratification or accession are to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. As at 10 March 1995, the CRC had been ratified or acceded to by 170 States.

See also:
Accession   Denunciation   Depositary   Entry into force   Signature   

Recovery and reintegration

CRC Article = 39
Note:
States Parties are required to take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of any form of abuse, neglect, or exploitation, of torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, or of armed conflicts.

See also:
Abduction   Abuse and neglect   Child pornography   Child prostitution   Children in armed conflicts   Cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment   Drug production   Drug trafficking   Economic exploitation   Exploitation   Sale and trafficking   Sexual exploitation   Torture   

Recovery of maintenance

CRC Article = 27(4)
Note:
Article 27(4) of the CRC obligates States Parties to take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad, including accession to or conclusion of international instruments concerning recovery of maintenance from abroad. Existing international treaties include: the Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Maintenance Obligations Towards Children (1956); the Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Relating to Maintenance Obligations (1973); and the Inter-American Convention on Support Obligations (1989).

See also:
Illicit transfer and non-return   Maintenance obligations   Parental responsibilities   

Recreation

CRC Article = 31
Note:
Article 31 of the CRC accords to the child the right to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child. States Parties are required to encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for recreational activity.

See also:
Equal opportunities   Leisure   

Recruitment

CRC Article = 38(3)
Note:
States Parties are required to refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of 15 years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of 15 years but who have not attained the age of 18 years, States Parties are required to endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest. The minimum ages established in States Parties for the purposes of recruitment and voluntary enlistment into the armed forces is of relevance to this provision. Article 77(2) of Protocol No. 1 Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (1977) and Article 4(3)(c) of Protocol No. 2 Additional to the Geneva Convention of 12 August 1949 Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (1977) also deal with the recruitment of children into the armed forces.

See also:
Children in armed conflicts   Participation in hostilities   

Refugee children

CRC Article = 22
Note:
Article 22 of the CRC accords special rights to refugee children. Under this provision, refugee children are defined as children who are seeking refugee status outside the country of their nationality or former habitual residence or who are considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by their parents or by any other person. States Parties are required to ensure that such children receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the CRC and in other human rights or humanitarian treaties to which States Parties to the CRC are also Parties (see "Refugee protection"). In cases where no parents or family members of a refugee child can be traced, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment, as set forth in Article 20 of the CRC.

See also:
Accompanied refugee children   Family reunification   Family tracing   Humanitarian assistance   Refugee protection   Refugee status   Refugee-assisting organizations   Unaccompanied refugee children   United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees   

Refugee protection

CRC Article = 22
Note:
The 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969) and the Cartagena Declaration (1984) play an important role in the international system of refugee protection. The mandate of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is to provide international protection to refugees under the auspices of the United Nations and, together with governments, to seek permanent solutions to their problems. Article 22 of the CRC deals with the protection of refugee children, and obligates States Parties to ensure that these children receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the CRC and in other international human rights or humanitarian treaties to which States Parties are also Parties.

See also:
Humanitarian assistance   International humanitarian law   Refugee children   Refugee status   Refugee-assisting organizations   United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees   

Refugee status

CRC Article = 22(1)
Note:
The 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees define a refugee regardless of age, and make no special provision for the status of refugee children. They obligate States Parties to apply the criterion of well-founded fear of persecution for granting refugee status. Applying this criterion to children does not normally give rise to any problem when, as in the majority of cases, they are accompanied by their parent(s). Determining the refugee status of unaccompanied children is more difficult and requires special consideration. Depending on the law of the State, a child seeking asylum may be granted: refugee status for having a well-founded fear of being persecuted, as defined in the aforementioned 1951 Convention and 1967 Protocol; refugee status as defined in the OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969); or refugee status as defined in the Cartagena Declaration (1984). If the refugee claim is denied, the child might be permitted to stay with an immigration status granted for another humanitarian reason, or receive a rejection or deportation order. Important to note is that Article 22 of the CRC accords protection not only to children who have been granted refugee status in host States Parties, but also to children who are seeking refugee status.

See also:
Accompanied refugee children   Refugee children   Refugee protection   Unaccompanied refugee children   

Refugee-assisting organizations

CRC Article = 22(2)
Note:
States Parties are required to provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist refugee children, including the tracing of the parents or other family members of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for family reunification.

See also:
Family tracing   Refugee children   Refugee protection   United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees