The study was initiated with twin aims: improving understanding of child trafficking and responses in the region; and contributing to the international discourse on child trafficking by examining the linkages between anti-trafficking responses and child protection systems. Although the study was conceived with a primary focus on trafficking, its scope is much broader. It analyses how the general principles of the Convention of the Rights of the Child are applied in relation to those children vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of exploitation. The research finds that many existing gaps may be bridged by consistent and strengthened implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
The study was initiated with twin aims: improving understanding of child trafficking and responses in the region; and contributing to the international discourse on child trafficking by examining the linkages between anti-trafficking responses and child protection systems. Although the study was conceived with a primary focus on trafficking, its scope is much broader. It analyses how the general principles of the Convention of the Rights of the Child are applied in relation to those children vulnerable to trafficking and other forms of exploitation. The research also finds that many existing gaps may be bridged by consistent and strengthened implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child.
This paper tries to respond to the complex challenge of going beyond a research approach into child well-being based on averages and proposes a complementary approach to compare inequalities across economically advanced countries. More specifically, the objective of this paper is to explore and compare the extent of disparity at the bottom-end of the distribution of child well-being, focusing on the gap between the child in the middle of the distribution and those who are disadvantaged, i.e. those at the bottom of the distribution.
This paper provides an overview of the social and economic vulnerabilities of households with children in the five Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and assesses the ability of national social protection systems to address these, with the main focus on the role of non-contributory cash transfers financed from general government revenues.
С конца 2007 года страны Центральной Азии перенесли два мощных потрясения, следовавших одно за другим: рост цен на продукты питания и топливо в 2007–2008 годах и мировой экономический и финансовый кризис, начавшийся в конце 2008 года. Кризис оказал непосредственное неблагоприятное воздействие на домохозяйства – как бедные, так и состоятельные. Многоаспектность кризиса и постоянно меняющаяся экономическая ситуация ставят под угрозу способность уязвимых домохозяйств справляться с ситуацией и поддерживать свой уровень жизни. Важную роль в реагировании на кризис играют программы социальной защиты.
This study presents an econometric model to estimate changes in the under-five mortality rate in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa over the years 1995-2007. The discussion centres on models with different specifications, and on the results obtained after testing several of them. The paper argues that initial models adopted to forecast the potential impact of the food and financial crisis overestimated the increase in mortality. However, the more complex tool presented in this study proves that under-five mortality rates have indeed increased (or declined less than predicted) due to the food and financial crises. The estimates provide signposts for remedies to protect children and their families when new shocks arrive.
This study discusses the theoretical challenge posed in identifying the mechanisms that link institutions and equitable economic growth at various levels of aggregation. The relationship between governance modes and institutions on the one hand, and economic growth and development on the other hand, may take very different forms. This relates to the question of whether a single and unique combination of institutions and governance modes is optimal for (equitable) growth, or whether different governance modes and institutions may lead to good or equitable growth performance in different locations and historical contexts.
The European Union (EU) is currently in the process of developing child specific indicators of well-being that will be used to monitor progress towards achieving inclusive economic growth. Although a wide range of child sensitive indicators has been proposed in recent years, none of the measures is sensitive to (changes in) cumulative deprivation i.e. the degree to which a child simultaneously experiences a range of unfavourable conditions. Children’s current well-being is a key determinant of their future situation; more often than not, well-being in one domain (e.g. health) is complementary to well-being in another domain (e.g. education); and children also have little control over, or responsibility for, the factors determining their own well-being.
Recent years have witnessed widespread acknowledgement in both academic and policy circles that children deserve a special focus in poverty measurement The case for a child focus in poverty and development debates can be made on moral, rights and efficiency based grounds. It is now widely recognized that children have different basic needs from adults and are harder hit, both in the short- and long-term, when their basic needs are not met.