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Karen Tindall; Lydia Hayward; Emma Hunt; Benjamin Hickler
Evidence increasingly shows applied behavioural science can positively impact childhood development and contribute to reducing inequalities. However, it is important for practitioners to reflect on the ethical considerations. For example, are you confident that the intervention is unlikely to have unintended harmful consequences? Or, is it easy for child recipients to opt out of the intervention?
To better understand these impacts, we consulted children in Australia, Chile and Ghana, interviewed subject matter experts and practitioners, and conducted a targeted literature review. This paper distils our findings and provides examples of how evidence-based interventions can meaningfully impact children’s futures. It is accompanied by a toolkit to guide and support practitioners through key ethical decision points.
Shivit Bakrania; Nikola Balvin; Silvio Daidone; Jacobus de Hoop
Despite the challenges involved in fragile and humanitarian settings, effective interventions demand rigorous impact evaluation and research. Such work in these settings is increasing, both in quality and quantity, and being used for programme implementation and decision-making.
This paper seeks to contribute to and catalyse efforts to implement rigorous impact evaluations and other rigorous empirical research in fragile and humanitarian settings. It describes what sets apart this type of research; identifies common challenges, opportunities, best practices, innovations and priorities; and shares some lessons that can improve practice, research implementation and uptake. Finally, it provides some reflections and recommendations on areas of agreement (and disagreement) between researchers and their commissioners and funding counterparts.
Mariya Stoilova; Sonia Livingstone; Rana Khazbak
Children’s lives are increasingly mediated by digital
technologies. Yet, when it comes to understanding the long-term effects of
internet use and online experiences on their well-being, mental health or
resilience, the best we can do is make an educated guess. Our need for this
knowledge has become even more acute as internet use rises during COVID-19.
This report explores what has been learned from the latest research about
children’s experiences and outcomes relating to the internet and digital
technologies. It aims to inform policy-makers, educators, child-protection
specialists, industry and parents on the best evidence, and it
proposes a future research agenda.
Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Richard Jolly; Frances Stewart
This paper identifies key ethical considerations when undertaking evidence generation involving children during the mitigation stage of the pandemic (emergency phase), on subject matter relating to COVID-19 once the pandemic has been contained, and once containment policy measures, including lockdowns, have been lifted (post-emergency phase).
While the COVID-19 pandemic is undoubtedly a global crisis, with evidence generation activities raising critical ethical issues that have been captured in the literature and relevant guidelines, there are specificities relating to this emergency that must be considered when unpacking potential ethical issues.
Jose Cuesta; Michelle Godwin; Jeremy Shusterman; Cirenia Chavez
Gabrielle Berman; James Powell; Manuel Garcia Herranz
are significant ethical implications in the adoption of technologies and the
production and use of the resulting data for evidence generation. The potential
benefits and opportunities need to be understood in conjunction with the
potential risks and challenges. When using social media to directly engage
children and their communities, or when establishing partnerships with these
organizations for data collection and analysis, adoption of these technologies
and their resultant data should not be exclusively driven by short-term
necessity but also by the long-term needs of our younger partners. When
engaging with social media and indeed most technology, thoughtfulness,
reflection and ongoing interrogation is required. This paper examines the
benefits, risks and ethical considerations when undertaking evidence
generation: (a) using social media platforms and (b) using third-party data
collected and analysed by social media services. It is supplemented by
practical tools to support reflection on the ethical use of social media
platforms and social media data.
Gabrielle Berman; Sara de la Rosa; Tanya Accone
technologies have transformed the way we visualize and understand social
phenomena and physical environments. There are significant advantages in using
these technologies and data however, their use also presents ethical dilemmas
such as privacy and security concerns as well as the potential for stigma and
discrimination resulting from being associated with particular locations.
Therefore, the use of geospatial technologies and resulting data needs to be
critically assessed through an ethical lens prior to implementation of
programmes, analyses or partnerships. This paper examines the benefits, risks
and ethical considerations when undertaking evidence generation using
geospatial technologies. It is supplemented by a checklist that may be used as a
practical tool to support reflection on the ethical use of geospatial
Mario Viola de Azevedo Cunha
We live in an information society, where the flow of information in the virtual environment is unprecedented. Web 2.0 platforms – and recently Web 3.0 platforms and the Internet of Things (IoT) – represent an important step forward in enhancing the lives of both adults and children everywhere, by combining greater efficiencies with a wide availability of new tools that can boost individual creativity and collective production. This new environment has exposed adults and children to fresh challenges that deserve special attention, especially those surrounding privacy. The main objective of this paper is to address the challenges posed to child privacy online and the impact that these challenges might have on other rights such as freedom of expression, access to information and public participation. To do this, the paper first analyses the current (and foreseen) threats to child privacy online and the various approaches adopted by government and/or the private sector to tackle this issue. The paper also examines whether children’s perspectives and needs are considered in international debates on technology regulation, including in regard to the so-called ‘right to be forgotten’. It then contextualizes the protection of privacy (and data protection) in relation to other fundamental rights in the online environment, arguing that in most cases this interaction is rather positive, with the enforcement of the right to privacy serving to protect other rights. The paper concludes by proposing some policy recommendations on how to better address the protection of children’s online privacy. These objectives are achieved through literature review and analysis of legal instruments.
Daniel Kardefelt Winther
Neetu A. John; Kirsten Stoebenau; Samantha Ritter; Jeffrey Edmeades; Nikola Balvin
The rapid changes that take place during adolescence provide opportunities for the development and implementation of policies and programmes, which can influence the gender socialization process, in order to maximize positive outcomes. This paper sets out to provide a conceptual understanding of the gender socialization process during adolescence, its influences and outcomes, and practical suggestions on how to use this knowledge in the design of policies and programmes to improve gender equality. First, theoretical contributions from psychology, sociology and biology were reviewed to situate the gender socialization process during adolescence in a broader context of multi-level influences. Second, a socio-ecological framework was introduced to bring together the main factors that influence the gender socialization process and its outcomes. Third, knowledge on how to influence the gender socialization process and its outcomes was summarized in order to provide practical recommendations for policies and programmes. This included: a) reviewing changes in demographics, the global media and gendered economic opportunities, to understand how the gender socialization process, gender norms and identities have been transformed at the macro level; and b) conducting a literature review of small-scale programmes designed to impact the gender socialization process. The paper concludes with recommendations for more holistic policy and programming efforts around gender socialization in adolescence.