Innocenti Working Papers

The Working Papers are the foundation of the Centre's research output, underpinning many of the Centre's other publications. These high quality research papers are aimed at an academic and well-informed audience, contributing to ongoing discussion on a wide range of child-related issues. More than 100 Working Papers have been published to date, with recent and forthcoming papers covering the full range of the Centre's agenda. The Working Papers series incorporates the earlier series of Innocenti Occasional Papers (with sub-series), also available for download.



Measuring Household Welfare: Short versus long consumption modules

2012


Measuring Household Welfare: Short versus long consumption modules
Consumption expenditure is probably the most common and preferred welfare indicator; however, its measurement is a challenging and time-consuming task. Although short consumption modules have potentially enormous advantage in terms of time and money savings, a recent and comprehensive literature on available experiments comparing short versus long modules is still lacking.



Relative Income Poverty among Children in Rich Countries

2012


Relative Income Poverty among Children in Rich Countries
This paper presents and discusses child relative income poverty statistics for 35 economically advanced countries, representing all the members of the European Union, Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Switzerland and the United States. According to the data (mostly from 2008), Nordic countries and the Netherlands present the lowest child relative poverty levels, while Japan, the United States, most of the Southern European countries and some of the new EU member states have among the highest.



The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh

2012


The Urban Divide: Poor and middle class children’s experiences of school in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Children living in urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh, often have poor access to school and attend different types of school than students from middle class households. This paper asks whether their experiences in school also disadvantage them further in terms of their learning outcomes and the likelihood of dropping out.



The Breadth of Child Poverty in Europe: An investigation into overlap and accumulation of deprivations

2011


Yannis Kontos / Polaris / Panos - UNITED KINGDOM - Girls living in the Clays Lane housing estate in Stratford, East London
Recent years have witnessed widespread acknowledgement in both academic and policy circles that children deserve a special focus in poverty measurement The case for a child focus in poverty and development debates can be made on moral, rights and efficiency based grounds. It is now widely recognized that children have different basic needs from adults and are harder hit, both in the short- and long-term, when their basic needs are not met.



Child Participation and Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children in Europe

2011


Child Participation and Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children in Europe
This paper focuses on the role played by independent human rights institutions for children in promoting children’s and adolescents’ participatory rights. It presents the conceptual and normative framework of participatory rights, including the approach of the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The paper analyses the involvement of children and adolescents in the functioning of these institutions in Europe.



Comparing Inequality in the Well-being of Children in Economically Advanced Countries: A methodology

2011


©William Daniels / Panos - A boy on a bicycle looks over a metal fence with leafless winter trees behind him.
This paper tries to respond to the complex challenge of going beyond a research approach into child well-being based on averages and proposes a complementary approach to compare inequalities across economically advanced countries. More specifically, the objective of this paper is to explore and compare the extent of disparity at the bottom-end of the distribution of child well-being, focusing on the gap between the child in the middle of the distribution and those who are disadvantaged, i.e. those at the bottom of the distribution.



The Establishment Process for a Separate Child Ombudsman in Turkey: A case study

2011


The Establishment Process for a Separate Child Ombudsman in Turkey: A case study
This paper provides an overview and analysis of the initial steps towards the establishment of a separate ombudsman for children in Turkey. Looking at children’s socio-economic conditions, the legal and political situation, as well as the perception of childhood in the country, it reviews the rationale for the creation of a children’s ombudsman. The paper then examines current processes from a child rights perspective, in particular with respect to the now cancelled general ombudsman law.



The Impact of the Food and Financial Crises on Child Mortality: The case of sub-Saharan Africa

2011


UNICEF/NYHQ2002-0298/Giacomo Pirozzi - Children queue for lunch at the Hatcliffe Primary One school in the suburban community of Hatcliffe, 22 km outside Harare, the capital
This study presents an econometric model to estimate changes in the under-five mortality rate in a number of countries in sub-Saharan Africa over the years 1995-2007. The discussion centres on models with different specifications, and on the results obtained after testing several of them. The paper argues that initial models adopted to forecast the potential impact of the food and financial crisis overestimated the increase in mortality. However, the more complex tool presented in this study proves that under-five mortality rates have indeed increased (or declined less than predicted) due to the food and financial crises. The estimates provide signposts for remedies to protect children and their families when new shocks arrive.



Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children

2011


Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children
This working paper addresses the role, contribution and impact of independent human rights institutions for children (IHRICs), also referred to as children’s ombudspersons or children’s commissioners. It looks at these institutions from the perspective and jurisprudence of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (the Committee) and the global perspective on the perception of the child and childhood resulting from contributions of these institutions to the process of implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).



Independent Human Rights Institutions for Children and the Committee on the Rights of the Child Reporting Process

2011


This paper presents an overview of the reporting process to the Committee on the Rights of the Child in relation to independent human rights institutions for children. It examines the Committee’s approach towards independent human rights institutions for children.



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