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UNICEF Innocenti's complete catalogue of research and reports

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Protection in Practice: The protection of children's rights in situations of armed conflict. UNICEF experience in Burundi
Protection in Practice: The protection of children's rights in situations of armed conflict. UNICEF experience in Burundi

AUTHOR(S)
Ben Majekodunmi

Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
In 1997, UNICEF’s first international Child Protection Officer, Ben Majekodunmi, took up his post in Burundi. This publication summarizes his experience and draws lessons for future child protection activities in emergency situations. Primarily aimed at UNICEF and UN policy makers, the publication calls for the creation of a systematic child protection capacity in the field as an integral part of an overall UN strategy. The development of an agreed methodology for child rights protection in the field is still in its embryonic stages. As UNICEF’s main research arm, the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre explores new areas on behalf of the organization as a whole. This document, based upon first-hand experience, is one part of the Centre’s contribution to the development of such methodology within UNICEF and within the UN as a whole.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 48 | Thematic area: Conflict and Displacement | Tags: armed conflicts, child protection, children in armed conflicts, children's rights | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
After the Fall: The human impact of ten years of transition
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
Following the fall of the Berlin wall, every former Soviet country experienced an economic crisis of some dimension. In many countries, the end of communism also blew the lid off tensions that had been simmering for decades, if not centuries. Since the late 1980s, armed conflict has broken out in around one third of the countries in the region. The human impact of such changes has been immense. Those born into authoritarian regimes now have the freedom to elect their representatives, to voice their opinions, to chart the course for their own lives. But they find that they must compete for their slice of the pie in the new economic climate. Others have lost their homes, schools, communities and countries as a result of armed conflict. This publication, created to mark the tenth anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall, looks back at the impact of ten years of transition. It argues for a new focus on the human aspect of transition, and a rededication to its original goals - a better quality of life for every citizen in a humane and democratic society.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 34 | Tags: economic development, economic transition, social development | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
La participación de niños y adolescentes en el contesto de la Convención Sobre los Derechos del Niño: visiones y perspectivas. Actas del Seminario, Bogotà 7-8 de deciembre 1998
La participación de niños y adolescentes en el contesto de la Convención Sobre los Derechos del Niño: visiones y perspectivas. Actas del Seminario, Bogotà 7-8 de deciembre 1998
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
La participación infantil constituye un elemento de gran relevancia en la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y su consideración es de primordial importancia para asegurar la implementación de todas las disposiciones del tratado. La participación infantil sirve además como enfoque de base para el desarrollo de estrategias y programas en beneficio de los niños. Al mismo tiempo, constituye tal vez el más innovador de los principios básicos de la Convención y seguramente el que ha suscitado más controversias. Existe actualmente una tendencia generalizada de las "organizaciones para el desarrollo", sin excluir la misma UNICEF, a hacer demasiado hincapié en los "programas" formales que promueven la participación, incluidos los eventos organizados a nivel nacional y destinados a llamar la atención de la opinión pública. Lamentablemente, estos eventos son casi siempre diseñados, en buena parte, fuera del mundo real de los "beneficiarios" para quienes se llevan a cabo, es decir los niños mismos. Una estrategia que consista esencialmente en multiplicar las experiencias reales de la participación "de todos los días" de los niños tiene buenas probabilidades de traer consigo un modo diferente de enfocar la promoción de los derechos del niño en cuanto se refiere a los padres, maestros y otros adultos clave en la vida cotidiana de los niños.
Bambini fra guerra e pace: il caso di Eritrea ed Etiopia
Bambini fra guerra e pace: il caso di Eritrea ed Etiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Roberto Beneduce

Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
La guerra non può giovare ai bambini che ne soffrono in modo particolare, essendo essi innocenti e indifesi. Basti pensare alle categorie considerate in questo Rapporto: bambini di strada; bambini portatori di handicap; orfani, bambini soli, bambini abbandonati, rifugiati e profughi. Non possiamo immaginare il profondo effetto psico-sociale che l’abbandono, lo smarrimento, la solitudine abbia su un bambino che si trova circondato dalla violenza della guerra. E cosa succede ai bambini portatori di handicap o ai bambini malati di AIDS?
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 46 | Thematic area: Conflict and Displacement | Tags: children in armed conflicts, children in emergency situations, children's rights violation | Publisher: Innocenti Research Centre and Cooperazione italiana
Après la chute
Après la chute
Published: 1999 Innocenti Publications
Le Centre de recherche Innocenti de l'UNICEF a dressé un tableau de la situation des femmes et des enfants dans la région depuis la chute du communisme. Le projet MONEE du centre, lancé en 1992, analyse les conditions sociales et les politiques publiques concernant les enfants et leurs familles à travers cette région très variée. Son rapport annuel de surveillance régionale, consacré à l'étude de questions-clés comme la pauvreté, la santé, l'éducation, les enfants à risque et la progression des femmes, est considéré comme la source la plus autorisée en ce qui concerne le côté humain de la transition.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 36 | Thematic area: Countries in Transition | Tags: economic and social development, economic transition | Publisher: UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Work and Education: Five case studies from Latin America
Published: 1998 Innocenti Publications
In recent years research, as well as the results of practical programmes, has lead to a clearer understanding of the relationship between child work and education. It is increasingly evident that child work is not entirely the result of economic need or exploitation. Frequently it is the failure of the educational system to offer adequate, stimulating and affordable schooling that encourages children to drop out in favour of work that appears to offer advantages more relevant to their everyday lives. Parents too may undervalue the role and purpose of schooling and see a job, including home-based work, as more valuable and certainly a more positive alternative to crime, delinquency or begging. Consequently, while a distinction needs to be made between 'formative child work' and 'harmful child work', in certain situations and cultures the phenomenon is not always seen as negative. These five case studies from Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala and Peru) all reveal the effects of inappropriate school curricula.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 162 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour | Tags: child workers, education, educational systems, minimum age, right to education | Publisher: Ashgate, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
What Works for Working Children?
Published: 1998 Innocenti Publications
The current upsurge of international concern about exploitative child labour has focused new attention on fundamental questions regarding children's work in general. What is the effect of work on children? When is it positive and when negative? What kinds of work help children develop valuable skills and attitudes and which violate their rights? This book approaches such questions from a rigorously child-centered perspective which constantly asks, "What is in the best interests of the children involved?" From this point of view it examines recent information and thinking about children's work in relation to child health and development, education, child protection laws, the market economy, children's role in society, and other issues of key importance for policy makers, programme planners and children's advocates. It reviews and summarizes recent research and experience regarding not only child work, but also the processes of child development as they relate to work. Many widespread beliefs and assumptions about both work and childhood are shown to be invalid or highly questionable. Alternative concepts and approaches that better reflect empirical evidence are suggested. This book offers a new way of thinking about children's work from a child development perspective. It is based on new ideas from the social sciences and new research findings. It presents an issue-oriented overview from recent literature and experience on how to approach critical concerns in children's work. This books attempts to look at responses to child labour problems that help working children. In doing so, it examines such complex problems as: How can policy makers and programme managers know what kinds of intervention to undertake? How can children be protected against abuse and exploitation in the workplace? What measures will indeed advance the well-being and development of the children involved? How can ineffective and counterproductive measures be avoided?
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 420 | Thematic area: Child Work and Labour | Tags: child labour, child workers, education, right to education | Publisher: Rädda Barnen and UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Decline of Infant and Child Mortality: The European experience 1750-1990
Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
Of the many changes that have taken place in Western society during the past two centuries, few have been more significant than the steep fall in infant and child mortality. However, the timing and causes of the decline are still poorly understood. While some scholars attribute it to general improvements in living standards, others emphasize the role of social intervention and public health reforms. Written by specialists from several disciplinary fields, the twelve essays in this book break entirely new ground by providing a long-term perspective that challenges some deep-rooted ideas about the European experience of mortality decline and may help explain the forces and causal relationships behind the still tragic incidence of preventable infant and child deaths in many parts of the world today.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 258 | Thematic area: Early Childhood | Tags: child mortality, early childhood development, infant mortality, public health, standard of living | Publisher: Kluwer Law International, The Hague; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Child Poverty and Deprivation in the Industrialized Countries 1945-1995
Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
The contributors to this volume use a common analytical framework to evaluate how economic, family structure and public policy changes affected the well-being of children in the industrialized countries in the West and the East from the end of the Second World War to the mid-1990s. Throughout the industrialized world, the living standards and social well-being of children improved remarkably over these five decades. But the quarter-century golden age that followed the war gave way to a period of stagnation after the early 1970s. Many of the negative developments of the past two decades could not have been easily prevented. Nonetheless, adverse or neglectful social policies share some of the blame for recent unfavourable changes in child well-being. The evidence presented suggests that, given current economic prospects and family structures, further weakening of social policies targeted at children could erode much of the progress of the past fifty years.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 444 | Thematic area: Industrialized Countries | Tags: child welfare, family structure, industrialized countries, public policy | Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children: Noble Causes or Worthy Citizens?

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Eric Knutsson

Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
The eight essays in this volume argue that for both theoretical and practical reasons children need to be understood in their own right. They ask fundamental questions about the cultural and social variations in the perceptions we have of children and childhood and the ways these perceptions emerge to influence and shape our assumptions, preferences and choices concerning children. The book aims to deepen understanding and interest by clarifying the theoretical, ethical and pragmatic reasons for transforming the political neglect of children into recognition and action. It concludes by proposing practical lessons that can be learned from the debate about children.
Cite this publication | No. of pages: 180 | Thematic area: Rights of the Child | Tags: childhood, children's rights, cultural factors, social roles | Publisher: Arena, UK; UNICEF ICDC, Florence
Children, Law and Justice: A South Asian Perspective
Published: 1997 Innocenti Publications
Even though all South Asian countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, there is as yet little awareness in the region of the importance of this Convention at various levels including policy planning, activism and legal reform in the on-going effort to achieve children’s rights. Thus argues Savitri Goonesekere, whose primary objective in this book is to outline the options available for using the Convention to create a legal system favourable to the realization of the rights of the child in South Asia. The first chapters discuss the international legal environment and the assumptions underlying South Asian domestic legislation on children’s rights, together with the conceptual framework of the Convention. The core of the book focuses on ‘best interests’ and examines such issues as trafficking in children, the status of the girl child, adoption and foster care, child prostitution, and the child as victim of abuse and violence.
Implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Resource mobilization in low-income countries

AUTHOR(S)
James R. Himes

Published: 1995 Innocenti Publications
This title focuses on the implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as it relates to children’s basic economic and social rights in developing countries in terms of the obligations placed by the Convention on both States and the international community. A key proposition is that working effectively for children’s rights involves many of the same strategies and implementation methods that have proved successful in numerous development efforts worldwide. The rights approach is inherently more concerned with issues of equity, non-discrimination and social justice, but it cannot afford to neglect the challenge of resource mobilization. And in this regard our conception of societal ‘resources’ must be extended beyond the limited finances of governments to encompass human, technological, cultural and organizational capabilities. (A summary of this book is also available as an Innocenti Study.)
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