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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Zahra Rezaie; Vahid Kohpeima Jahromi; Vahid Rahmanian (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a major problem for education systems. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of educational intervention based on the self-efficacy theory of high-school students in adopting preventive behaviors of COVID-19. This quasi-experimental study was performed on Hazrat Zahra and Shahed high-school students in Jahrom (southern Iran) in 2021. In total, 160 students (80 each in the intervention group and the control group) were selected by multistage random sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire and self-efficacy in adopting preventive behaviors from COVID-19 researcher-made questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed by all participants before and 3 months after the educational intervention. The educational intervention was performed for 6 weeks by using an educational program based on Bandura self-efficacy theory. The intervention was performed during 12 sessions of face-to-face training in the classroom (two 1-h sessions per week), distributing educational packages and sending educational videos through cyberspace. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t test, paired t test, and linear regression.
In the shadow of COVID-19: A randomized controlled online ACT trial promoting adolescent psychological flexibility and self-compassion

AUTHOR(S)
Päivi Lappalainen; Raimo Lappalainen; Katariina Keinonen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science

Although some adolescents managed to cope well with the challenges brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic, the well-being of many was adversely affected due to school closures, distance education, restrictions on gathering with friends, and limited access to mental health services. Many adolescents reported increased anxiety and depression as well as decreased psychological wellbeing due to the pandemic. Consequently, there is a need for psychological support that exceeds the strained resources available to schools to support young people during times of crisis and societal pressure. The present study aimed to explore the effects of an online-delivered ACT intervention to promote adolescent psychological flexibility and self-compassion and decrease psychological distress during the second wave of COVID-19 in the fall of 2020.

Menstrual disturbances in 12- to 15-year-old girls after one dose of COVID-19 Comirnaty vaccine: population-based cohort study in Norway

AUTHOR(S)
Ida Henriette Caspersen; Lene K. Juvet; Berit Feiring (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccine

A worldwide COVID-19 mass vaccination campaign targeting adults was launched in late December 2020. Subsequently, the Comirnaty (BNT162b2) vaccine was recommended for children aged 12–15 years in May 2021. In Norway, only one dose of the Comirnaty vaccine was recommended to children aged 12–15 years. Vaccination was not recommended for children who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2. In line with findings in older age groups, the most prevalent adverse events after vaccination that have been reported in 12- to 15-year-old adolescents are injection site pain (in 79 to 86 % of participants), fatigue (in 60 to 66 %), and headache (in 55 to 65 %). Adolescents aged 12–17 years have been found to have a moderately higher risk of adverse reactions than adults. For new vaccines, clinical trials typically collect data on commonly recognized adverse events and safety profiles. However, questions about the menstrual cycle have not been included in clinical studies. A significant number of reports on menstrual disturbances after COVID-19 vaccination have been registered in spontaneous adverse events surveillance systems in several countries (USA, UK, Norway, the Netherlands).

A win-win for all of us: COVID-19 sheds light on the essentialness of child care as key infrastructure

AUTHOR(S)
Owusua Yamoah; Sarah Balser; Callie Ogland-Hand (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Child care centers in the United States allow many parents and caregivers to work in and outside of the home and support the growth and development of children. Child care closures and COVID-19 mitigation measures at the onset of the pandemic heightened the need for and awareness of the role of child care as core infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role and benefits of child care based on the lived experiences of parents/caregivers and staff navigating child care during the pandemic. It conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with parents/caregivers (n = 20) of children who attended child care and staff (n = 12) who were working at child care programs in Ohio from September to November 2020. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed through the lens of four frameworks (i.e., capabilities, developmental, economics, and mutualism) related to child well-being.
Magnitude and determinants of food insecurity among pregnant women in Rwanda during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Erigene Rutayisire; Michael Habtu; Nicholas Ngomi (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Agriculture and Food Research

Globally, food insecurity is becoming a major public health concern, and has seriously been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. In the last decade, Rwanda has made significant improvement in terms of overall household food security. However, the magnitude of food insecurity among pregnant women is not well known. This study investigated the magnitude and factors associated with food insecurity among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was a cross-sectional study conducted in 30 health facilities across the country where a total of 1159 pregnant women in their first trimester of pregnancy were recruited during antenatal care visits (ANC).

Parental decision-making on summer program enrollment: a mixed methods Covid-19 impact study

AUTHOR(S)
Roddrick Dugger; Layton Reesor-Oyer; Michael W. Beets (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Evaluation and Program Planning

The closure of childcare organizations (e.g. schools, childcare centers, afterschool programs, summer camps) during the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the health and wellbeing of families. Despite their reopening, parents may be reluctant to enroll their children in summer programming. Knowledge of the beliefs that underlie parental concerns will inform best practices for organizations that serve children. Parents (n = 17) participated in qualitative interviews (October 2020) to discuss Covid-19 risk perceptions and summer program enrollment intentions. Based on interview responses to perceived Covid-19 risk, two groups emerged for analysis- “Elevated Risk (ER)” and “Conditional Risk (CR)”. Themes were identified utilizing independent coding and constant-comparison analysis. Follow-up interviews (n = 12) in the Spring of 2021 evaluated the impact of vaccine availability on parent risk perceptions. Additionally, parents (n = 17) completed the Covid-19 Impact survey to assess perceived exposure (Range: 0–25) and household impact (Range: 2–60) of the pandemic. Scores were summed and averaged for the sample and by risk classification group.

Global prevalence of physical and psychological child abuse during COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Hyun Lee; EunKyung Kim

Published: January 2023   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

With the onset of COVID-19, most countries issued lockdowns to prevent the spread of the virus globally and child abuse was concerned under such a closed circumstance. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of physical and psychological child abuse during COVID-19 and moderating variables for those abuses. The rates of child abuse reported in 10 studies encompassing 14,360 children were used, which were gathered through a systematic review.

Mother-infant emotional availability through the COVID-19 pandemic: examining continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations

AUTHOR(S)
Nila Shakiba; Gal Doron; Avigail Gordon-Hacker (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Infancy
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact the development of infants' social communication patterns with their caregivers. The current study examined continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations in maternal and infant dyadic Emotional Availability (EA) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 110 Israeli mother-infant dyads (51% girls) that were assessed prior to (Mage = 3.5 months) and during (Mage = 12.4 months) the pandemic.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on educational, psychosocial and behavioral aspects of children: a cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Pandi; Aradhya Korapati; Kanta Kumari (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

The outbreak of COVID-19 appeared first in China and then, rapidly, spread to the rest of the world, and WHO declared it as a pandemic.A nation-wide closure of educational institutions was implemented as an emergency measure in India in March 2020. Meanwhile the traditional classroom instructions were replaced by online classes and home-based learning. Pandemic stressors such as boredom, being in isolation, one of the family members hospitalized/ succumbed to covid, etc, may have even more negative impact on children’s behaviour and emotions. Objectives were to study the impact of covid 19 pandemic on psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional survey conducted among the parents attending paediatric OPD in NRI general and superspeciality hospital, Mangalagiri, between September 2021 to December 2021 over a period of 70 day along with their children of age group between 3 years to 18 years with an aim to explore various psychosocial, educational and behavioral aspects of children and their correlation.

Screen media exposure and behavioral adjustment in early childhood during and after COVID-19 home lockdown periods

AUTHOR(S)
Noa Gueron-Sela; Ido Shaleva; Avigail Gordon-Hacker (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
There is ample evidence that young children's screen media use has sharply increased since the outbreak of the novel 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, the long-term impact of these changes on children's adjustment is currently unclear. The goals of the current study were to assess longitudinal trajectories of young children's screen media exposure through a series of national COVID-19 home lockdowns and to examine the predictive associations between different aspects of media exposure and post-lockdown behavioral adjustment. Data were collected at four timepoints during and after home lockdown periods in Israel. Longitudinal data measuring various aspects of media use, behavioral conduct and emotional problems were gathered from a sample of 313 Israeli children (54% females) between the ages two to five years (Mage at T1 = 3.6), by surveying their mothers at 5 points in time.
Alcohol use among Australian parents during the COVID-19 pandemic – April-2020 to May 2021

AUTHOR(S)
C. J. Greenwood; M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; D. M. Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Addictive Behaviors

This study examined the trajectory of alcohol use frequency among parents from April-2020 to May-2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic in the state of Victoria, Australia (who experienced one of the longest lockdowns in the world), compared to parents from the other states of Australia (who experienced relatively fewer restrictions). We further examined the extent to which baseline demographic factors were associated with changes in alcohol use trajectories among parents. Data were from the COVID-19 Pandemic Adjustment Survey (2,261 parents of children 0–18 years). Alcohol use frequency was assessed over 13 waves. Baseline demographic predictors included parent gender, age, speaking a language other than English, number of children, partnership status, education, employment, and income.

Intergenerational interventions during Covid‐19: impact on children's drawings of the elderly and dementia

AUTHOR(S)
Kasper Bormans; Sandra Zwakhalen

Published: December 2022   Journal: Alzheimer & Dementia

Positive qualities of children can be used to lighten the burden of dementia for society. Almost every child knows a person with dementia. The primary objective of this study is to connect generations and increase positive interaction by translating the ‘hidden victims of the disease’ into ‘hidden resources’. It developed a mobile application (‘MemoryHome’) based on the ancient mnemonic ‘the method of loci’ (MoL). The application allows children (n = 31) to construct personalized memory walks throughout the known environment of grandparents and dementia patients. The visual-audio-guide encourages communication between the elder person and the child. The youngsters made drawings of elderly people before and after the combination of meetings with grandparents and an educational trajectory regarding positive ageing of 12 weeks. The current study took place in autumn 2021.

Evaluation of high school students' perceptions and views on distance education during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Öykü Çelik

Published: December 2022   Journal: Open Schools Journal for Open Science
The COVID-19 disease, which spread all over the world and caused a pandemic, disrupted education the most. Countries had to quickly switch to the distance education model in schools and universities in order to prevent the spread of the epidemic. In this study, in which the perceptions and views of high school students about distance education was evaluated, almost two-thirds of the students stated that distance education is not an adequate and effective learning model. Despite the fact that today is the age of technology, students' reporting that a more effective learning will be achieved with face-to-face education shows that the distance education model should be developed and improved.
An assessment of the impact of distance learning on pupils' performance

AUTHOR(S)
Vaidas Gaidelys; Ruta Ciutien; Gintautas Cibulskas

Published: December 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
Distance education has influenced the organization of education at the level of systems and schools, the change in the specificity of teachers’ activities, the change in pupils’ learning, and, undoubtedly, the attainment of learning outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine what factors have affected pupils’ learning outcomes in the course of distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, from the perspective of pupils, pupils’ parents, and teachers. A quantitative study was conducted in order to reveal the impact of distance learning. The positive and negative aspects of distance education became clear. As regards the negative consequences of distance teaching/learning, the results of the study showed that in the teachers’ opinion, the pupils’ learning outcomes generally deteriorated. The positive factors of distance learning influencing the learning process and thus learning outcomes were a comfortable environment, the possibility to use a variety of learning aids available at home, and the possibility to view the lesson records at a time convenient for pupils.
COVID-19 anxiety in children and its relationship with self-related skills of executive functions

AUTHOR(S)
Sakineh Soltani Kouhbanani; Somayeh Zarenezhad; Seyedeh Manizheh Arabi

Published: December 2022   Journal: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry

Some children experience a significant deal of anxiety during the outbreak of COVID-19. Behavioral dimensions of the executive function appear to link to situational anxiety experience. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between self-related skills of executive functions and the level of anxiety in children (8-12-years-old) during the outbreak of COVID-19. Also, the secondary goal of this study is to predict the level of anxiety based on self-related skills of executive functions. Parents of 300 children filled out the Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS) and the COVID19 anxiety scale. Data were analyzed using correlation and path analysis. A significance level of less than 0.05 was set for all tests. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22 software.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.