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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 3116
Studying at home: experience of parents and their young children in an underdeveloped area of Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Beatriks Novianti Bunga; R. Pasifikus Christa Wijaya; Indra Yohanes Kiling (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Childhood Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused school closures around the world, requiring home-based learning for millions of students. The transition into home-based learning might decrease young children’s access to quality education, especially in underdeveloped areas like East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia. This study aimed to explore how mothers and young children experience studying at home in an underdeveloped area. Data were gathered using the photovoice method. The participants of the study were 12 mothers of children younger than 8 years old. For seven days, participants used their phone cameras to take photos related to their experience of studying at home. Thematic analysis identified two main themes: the learning media for studying at home and challenges of studying at home. The first theme focuses several learning media, including digital and non-digital media, used by participants and their young children during the pandemic. The second theme focuses on issues faced by participants in studying at home, including time-management, disruption in routines, and lack of social interaction. Home-based learning can be improved using the findings of this study.
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent vaccinations: projected time to reverse deficits in routine adolescent vaccination in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Kunal Saxen; Jessica R. Marden; Cristina Carias (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Medical Research and Opinion

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines among adolescents in the US including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal (ACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The extent to which these deficits could persist in 2021 and beyond is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study estimated the cumulative deficits of routine vaccine doses among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimated the time and effort needed to recover from those deficits. Monthly reductions in Tdap, meningococcal, and HPV doses administered to US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic were quantified using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data. The time and effort required to reverse the vaccination deficit under various catch-up scenarios were estimated.

Parents’ attitudes toward children’s vaccination as a marker of trust in health systems

AUTHOR(S)
Orna Tal; Yifat Ne’eman; Rotem Sadia (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Children’s vaccination is a major goal in health-care systems worldwide; nevertheless, disparities in vaccination coverage expose socio-demographic accessibility gaps, unawareness, physicians’ disapproval and parents’ incomplete adherence reflecting insufficient public-provider trust. This study aimed to analyze parents’ attitude toward children’s vaccination in correlation with trust among stakeholders. A total of 1031 parents replied to a “snowball” questionnaire; 72% reported high trust in their physician, 42% trusted the authorities, 11% trusted internet groups. Among minorities, parents who fully vaccinate their children were younger, live in urban areas, eat all kinds of foods and trust the authorities, similar to the general population. Low adherence to children’s vaccination was correlated with trusting internet groups.
Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

AUTHOR(S)
Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

Parents’ hesitation about getting their children vaccinated against COVID-19 in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Takeshi Yoda; Hironobu Katsuyama

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Given the urgent global need for vaccinating individuals of all ages against the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the extent and reasons for parents’ willingness to get their children vaccinated is important. This study used an internet-based questionnaire survey to determine parents’ willingness to get their children (0 to 15 years) vaccinated in Japan and was conducted in April 2021 before COVID-19 vaccination for children began. Socio-demographic information, information about parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated, reasons for their responses, and parents’ willingness to get themselves vaccinated were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated based on the other variables.
In the face of a pandemic: adapting a mentalization-focused treatment that promotes attachment with birth parents and young children in foster care

AUTHOR(S)
Phyllis Cohen; Kate Hariton; Ashley Rodriguez

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Child Psychotherapy
The central focus of the Building Blocks Program is to increase the mentalizing capacity of high-risk birth mothers whose young children under the age of five have been placed in foster care. In Building Blocks, therapists are trained to provide dyadic psychotherapy with a birth mother and her child during court-mandated supervised visits, with the aim of reducing cycles of trauma, abuse and neglect, and facilitating a more secure attachment. The program is psychoanalytically informed, grounded in theories of attachment, mentalization and reflective functioning. On March 14, 2020, due to the rapidly spreading coronavirus, it became clear that the birth parents could no longer safely visit with their children in person. In addition, court hearings that might have allowed the retention of parental rights were postponed, leaving many parents devastated. This paper first describes how the Building Blocks approach has been adapted during the pandemic. Second, two case examples are presented that highlight the pre-pandemic work of Building Blocks, as well as the innovative and creative ways the treatment model was adapted when it became unsafe to conduct dyadic therapy at the clinic. Using virtual video platforms, the Building Blocks Program has applied the model of ‘Nested Mentalization,’ providing support and scaffolding for the therapists, parents and children.
Engaging Latino families about COVID-19 vaccines: a qualitative study conducted in Oregon, USA

AUTHOR(S)
Jonathan Garcia; Nancy Vargas; Cynthia de la Torre (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Education & Behavior

Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13–18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion–crystallization.

He’s working from home and I’m at home trying to work: experiences of childcare and the work–family balance among mothers during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Martucci

Published: October 2021
This article captures mothers’ experiences of the work–family balance and division of household labor during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. Interviews were conducted with twenty-five academics and twenty professionals in other fields. Mothers who split childcare with their partners had a more positive experience of the work–family balance during lockdown, compared with mothers who did the majority of the childcare. The present study adds a new wrinkle into the literature on flexibility and work–family balance: the perception of flexibility and its impact on the division of labor. Academic mothers, who had always had highly “flexible” jobs, were less likely to split childcare with their partners pre-pandemic and thus less likely to have positive experiences of work–family balance during the Spring 2020 lockdown. I argue that perceived flexibility of a partner’s job affected allocation of childcare during the initial stages of the pandemic, a moment that wreaked significant harm on women’s careers.
Is symptom screening useful for identifying COVID-19 infection in school settings? Georgia, USA

AUTHOR(S)
Megan Swanson; Marisa Hast; Eleanor Burnett (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
This study’s goal was to characterize the utility of symptom screening in staff and students for COVID-19 identification and control of transmission in a school setting. It conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data for staff, students and associated household members in a Georgia school district exposed to COVID-19 cases who received RT-PCR testing and symptom monitoring. Among positive contacts, 30/49 (61%) of students and 1/6 (17%) of staff reported no symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Symptom sensitivity was 30% in elementary students and 42% in middle/high students. Fifty-three percent (10/19) of symptomatic positive contacts had at least one household member test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 50% (10/20) of asymptomatic positive contacts. The absence of symptoms in children is not indicative of a lack of SARS-CoV-2 infection or reduced risk of infection for associated household members. Testing all close contacts of people with COVID-19 in schools is needed to interrupt transmission networks.
Evaluation of a graduated exposure procedure to teach extended mask wearing in various settings to children with autism

AUTHOR(S)
Hallie M. Ertel; David A. Wilder; Ansley C. Hodges

Published: October 2021   Journal: Behavior Modification
During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommended that everyone 2 years and older wear a face mask while in a community setting. However, children with autism may be reluctant to wear a mask, particularly for extended durations. The current study implemented a graduated exposure procedure to teach mask wearing for a minimum of 1 hour in an early intensive behavioral (EIBI) intervention clinic to three children diagnosed with autism. It subsequently probed mask wearing, and if necessary implemented the graduated exposure procedure, in each participant’s home and in a mock physician’s office. Finally, it collected probe data on mask wearing in another community setting and 1 month post-treatment maintenance data in the EIBI clinic. During baseline, participants wore masks for 0 second to 5 minutes. After treatment, all participants wore the mask for at least 1 hour in each setting, with maintenance probes indicating 4 to 5 hour mask tolerance.
COVID-19 and digital primary education: impact and strategies for sustainable development

AUTHOR(S)
Sudarshan Maity; Tarak Nath Sahu; Nabanita Sen

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Development Policy and Practice
The present study is based on primary data of 720 students from primary schools in West Bengal, India. With adherence to the Logistic Regression Model, the study investigates and analyses the factors that influence digital learning of primary students during the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Further with the application of Welch’s t-test, comparative study have been conducted based on parameters as village and city school students, private and government school students and gender discrimination. The findings conclude that the school structure; willingness of the school and teachers to conduct virtual classes; availability and accessibility of high-speed internet and economic capability of parents to bear the exorbitant internet charges are significant dimensions in virtual learning of primary section students. The study also confirms that during the pandemic girl students and students from village government schools are the worst hit in comparison to boys who are from city-based schools and private schools respectively.
Characteristics of pandemic work–life balance in Slovenian military families during the lockdown: who has paid the highest price?

AUTHOR(S)
Janja Vuga Beršnak; Živa Humer; Bojana Lobe (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Sociology
In April 2020, a survey was conducted among Slovenian military families, being one of the first surveys to be carried out in the country after the outbreak of the pandemic. The military was labeled a crucial institution in the efforts to combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was appointed to various activities, leading to a considerable increase in its workload. The burden of care and unpaid work at that time also intensified, becoming shifted onto the military family, particularly civilian female spouses. The survey’s purpose was to measure how military families evaluated their success in balancing between working from home, household work, childcare, and home schooling during the pandemic lockdown. The risk factors were observed on the micro (i.e., lack of extended family support, institutional childcare, and school lockdown) and macro (i.e., military support, national support measures) social levels. The analysis reveals that when it comes to military families the greatest price has been paid by female civilian spouses. The number of children and their age influence parents’ self-evaluation of their success with work–life balance. The results show that big families and families with primary school children have been struggling the most during the lockdown. Surprisingly, dual-serving families felt the most successful.
Disparities in access to pediatric otolaryngology care during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Yvonne Adigwu; Beth Osterbauer; Christian Hochstim

Published: October 2021   Journal: Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology

Racial/ethnic minority pediatric otolaryngology patients experience health disparities, including barriers to accessing health care. Our hypothesis for this study is that Hispanic or economically disadvantaged patients would represent a larger percentage of missed appointments and report more barriers to receiving care during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey utilizing a modified version of the Barriers to Care Questionnaire was administered via telephone to no-show patients, and median income by zip code was collected. Chi-squared, logistic regression, and Student’s t-tests were used to investigate any differences in those who did and did not keep their appointments as well as any differences in mean questionnaire scores.

An exploratory case study of mindfulness techniques in a high school band program during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karen M. Koner; Abigayle Weaver

Published: October 2021   Journal: Update: Applications of Research in Music Education
The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of mindfulness practices on high school band students. This action research project took place in spring 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic stay-at-home orders. Four students enrolled in the high school band participated in five weeks of mindfulness practice interventions over the virtual format alongside their instrumental music director. Mindfulness practices included diaphragmatic breathing, relaxation imagery, cued relaxation, and stretching. Throughout the five weeks, student participants discussed improved focus, improvement of stress management, and increased frequency of mindfulness practice. However, four months after data collection was complete, three of the four student participants continued to practice mindfulness techniques on their own time to assist with nervousness, anxiety, and stress.
Children’s conceptions of coronavirus

AUTHOR(S)
Fotini Bonoti; Vasilia Christidou; Penelope Papadopoulou

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Understanding of Science
The present study aimed to examine children’s conceptions of coronavirus as denoted in their verbal descriptions and drawings and whether these vary as a function of children’s age and the mode of expression. Data were collected in Greece during spring 2020 and 344 children aged 4 to 10 years were first asked to verbally describe coronavirus and then to produce a drawing of it. Content analysis of data revealed the following main themes: (a) Coronavirus, (b) Medical, (c) Psychological, and (d) Social. Results showed that children from an early age present a remarkable level of understanding of coronavirus and the COVID-19 disease as a multidimensional construct, which can be designated not only through characteristics of the Sars-Cov-2 but also through its medical, social, and psychological consequences on people’s lives. Moreover, children were found to emphasize different aspects of this construct depending on their age and the mode of expression.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.