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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 1730
Missed childhood immunizations during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: analyses of routine statistics and of a national household survey

AUTHOR(S)
Mariangela F. Silveira; Cristian T. Tonial; Ana Goretti K. Maranhão (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Vaccine

There is widespread concern that disruption to health services during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to declines in immunization coverage among young children, but there is limited information on the magnitude of such impact. High immunization coverage is essential for reducing the risk of vaccine preventable diseases.This study used data from two nationwide sources covering the whole of Brazil. Data from the Information System of the National Immunization Program (SIPNI) on the monthly number of vaccine doses administered to young children were analyzed. The second source was a survey in 133 large cities in the 27 states in the country, carried out from August 24–27. Respondents answered a question on whether children under the age of three years had missed any scheduled vaccinations during the pandemic, and available vaccination cards were photographed for later examination.

Receiving maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of women's partners and support persons

AUTHOR(S)
Vidanka Vasilevski; Linda Sweet; Zoe Bradfield (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

In Australia, the provision of maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly altered to limit transmission of the virus. Many hospitals limited face-to-face appointments to only the pregnant woman and restricted the number of support people present during labour, birth, and postnatal visits to one person. How these restrictions were experienced by partners and support persons of childbearing women are unknown. This srticle aims to explore the experiences of partners and support persons of women receiving maternity care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Pregnant and hungry: Addressing food insecurity in pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Cara D. Dolin; Charlene C. Compher; Jinhee K. Oh (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Food insecurity is a major social determinant of health impacting more than 10% of Americans. Social determinants of health are increasingly recognized as a driving force of health inequities. It is well established that food insecurity leads to adverse health outcomes outside of pregnancy such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and mental health problems. However, little is known about the impact of food insecurity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Food insecurity and other social determinants of health are rarely addressed as part of routine obstetric care. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has only exacerbated the crisis of food insecurity across the country, disproportionally affecting women as well as racial and ethnic minorities. Women's health providers should implement universal screening for maternal food insecurity and offer resources to women struggling to feed themselves and their families. Reducing maternal health inequities in the US includes recognizing and addressing food insecurity, along with other social determinants of health, and advocating for public policies that support and protect all women's right to healthy food during pregnancy.
Child maltreatment reports and Child Protection Service responses during COVID-19: Knowledge exchange among Australia, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Germany, Israel, and South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Ilan Katz; Carmit Katz; Sabine Andresen (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 has become a worldwide pandemic impacting child protection services (CPSs) in many countries. With quarantine and social distancing restrictions, school closures, and recreational venues suspended or providing reduced access, the social safety net for violence prevention has been disrupted significantly. Impacts include the concerns of underreporting and increased risk of child abuse and neglect, as well as challenges in operating CPSs and keeping their workforce safe. The current discussion paper explored the impact of COVID-19 on child maltreatment reports and CPS responses by comparing countries using available population data.

Rate of thrombosis in children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19 or MIS-C

AUTHOR(S)
Hilary Whitworth; Sarah E. Sartain; Riten Kumar (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: 75 Blood
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with thrombotic complications in adults, but the incidence of COVID-19 related thrombosis in children and adolescents is unclear. Most children with acute COVID-19 have mild disease, but coagulopathy has been associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a post-infectious complication. This study conducted a multicenter retrospective cohort research to determine the incidence of thrombosis in children hospitalized with COVID-19 or MIS-C and to evaluate associated risk factors.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 137 | Issue: 18 | No. of pages: 22 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: adolescent health, child health, child mortality, COVID-19, infectious disease, respiratory diseases
Maternal respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy is associated with a robust inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface

AUTHOR(S)
Alice Lu-Culligan; Arun R. Chavan; Pavithra Vijayakumar (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Med
Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at increased risk for severe illness and pregnancy complications compared with non-pregnant women. Researchers at Yale School of Medicine analyzed placentas from SARS-CoV-2-infected women at the time of delivery and found that, although placental cells are susceptible to infection in vitro, viral RNA is rarely detected in clinical samples. The Yale team observed local immune responses at the maternal-fetal interface, including upregulation of interferon pathways and activation of T and NK cells. Although placental immune activation during maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection likely represents a host defense mechanism of shielding the maternal-fetal interface from infection, these inflammatory changes may contribute to the increased risk for complications seen in COVID-19-affected pregnancies.
The pitfalls of modelling the effects of COVID-19 on gender-based violence: lessons learnt and ways forward | BMJ Global Health

AUTHOR(S)
Michelle Lokot; Amiya Bhatia; Shirin Heidari; Amber Peterman

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMJ Global Health
Since early 2020, global stakeholders have highlighted the significant gendered consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, including increases in the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). Researchers have sought to inform the pandemic response through a diverse set of methodologies, including early efforts modelling anticipated increases in GBV. For example, in April 2020, a highly cited modelling effort by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and partners projected headline global figures of 31 million additional cases of intimate partner violence due to 6 months of lockdown, and an additional 13 million child marriages by 2030. In this paper, we discuss the rationale for using modelling to make projections about GBV, and use the projections released by UNFPA to draw attention to the assumptions and biases underlying model-based projections.
The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant pswomen

AUTHOR(S)
Jose A. Puertas-Gonzalez; Carolina Mariño-Narvaez; Maria Isabel Peralta-Ramirez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Psychiatry Research
The aim was to examine the psychological effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women, as well as the factors influencing these effects. The study design was cross-sectional and the participants were 200 pregnant women. The first group called the Pandemic Group (PG) included 100 women who were evaluated with psychological assessment instruments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second group titled Pre-Pandemic Group (PPG) consisted of 100 women who were evaluated prior to the pandemic. Perceived stress, prenatal concerns and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated and compared.
Stress, alcohol use, and punitive parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer Price Wolf; Bridget Freisthler; Caileigh Chadwick

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol. We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern.

COVID-19 herd immunity by immunisation: are children in the herd?

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen Obaro

Published: April 2021   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
The scourge of COVID-19 has been global, but the most affected subgroups in the population have largely been older people and individuals with comorbid conditions that predispose them to increasingly severe disease and poor outcomes. Overall, the disease burden in children has been reasonably mild, even in those with comorbidities, such as oncological conditions. Protection from severe disease in children might be related to a lower expression of host factors required for viral replication, and to differences in the magnitude and timing of innate or adaptive immune responses. Data for recorded COVID-19 cases show that only 7% of children younger than 18 years with severe disease required intensive care, whereas 53% of adults who had severe disease required intensive care.
Adolescents’ experiences of covid-19 in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions, Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Farhana Alam; Md Sajib Rana; Samira Ahmed Raha (et al.)

Institution: Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence
Published: April 2021

This study is part of a cross-country series designed to share emerging findings in real time from qualitative interviews with adolescents and school teachers in the context of covid-19. Our sample for this study was purposefully selected from an ongoing baseline GAGE impact evaluation study, and includes two cohorts: younger adolescents (10–14 years) and older adolescents (15–19 years), all of whom are in-school (grades 7 and 8). Adolescent respondents were drawn from both urban and rural schools in Chittagong and Sylhet divisions of Bangladesh. The objectives of the research are as follows: 1) to understand adolescents’ experiences of transition from childhood to adulthood, and to identify differences in their experiences by age, gender, disability and geographic location; 2) to identify adolescents’ knowledge of covid-19, and how the pandemic response has affected adolescent lives. To inform the pandemic response, this study aims to understand adolescents’ knowledge, perceptions and practices during the covid-19 pandemic, their challenges and worries, and the coping mechanisms they are using to deal with the evolving situation.

The challenges made me stronger: what contributes to young people's resilience in Ethiopia?

AUTHOR(S)
Gina Crivello; Agazi Tiumelissan; Karin Heissler

Institution: Young Lives
Published: April 2021
This working paper explores the meanings and experiences of resilience, and its gender dimensions, among a cohort of Ethiopian children exposed to poverty and adversity across the early life course. It asks why some girls and some boys seem to fare well as they transition to adulthood, despite the challenges and obstacles they had faced, while others do less well. The data comprise repeat life history interviews (from ages 12 to 24) and survey questionnaires over a 20-year period (to age 25). Qualitative analysis (n=64) revealed how children’s lives did not follow linear paths, and were easily derailed by unplanned events and shocks, including: (a) climatic shocks; (b) societal influences; (c) school transitions and relations; (d) household changes; and (e) child health and social development. Gender mediated children’s experiences of risk and their individual and family coping mechanisms.
Building our imagined futures: supporting resilience among young women and men in Ethiopia
Institution: Young Lives, UK Aid, *UNICEF
Published: April 2021
This policy brief draws on a qualitative study that uses a gender perspective to investigate the notion of resilience among a cohort of young women and young men who grew up in poverty in five rural and urban communities in Ethiopia, and who are part of the broader Young Lives longitudinal study of 3000 children and young people in the country.  It asks why some children seem to fare well as they transistion to adulthood, despite the challenges and obstacles they had faced, whilst others do less well.
Guidelines to strengthen the right to education in national frameworks
Institution: UNESCO
Published: April 2021

These timely Guidelines were developed precisely with the aim to assist countries and stakeholders to conduct assessments of their national education legal and policy frameworks. The first edition was published in 2014. Today, more than being just a revision, the new Guidelines have been entirely re-designed and re-written to reflect the new context, trends and challenges. They build on the new knowledge we produced, capitalize on the work carried out in countries, and use improved methodological tools.

Keeping girls in the picture during and after the COVID-19 crisis: the latest facts on gender equality in education
Institution: UNESCO - Global Education Monitoring Report Team
Published: April 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused the largest disruption of education in history. Throughout 2020 most governments around the world temporarily closed schools and other learning spaces in an attempt to contain the spread of the virus. At the peak of the pandemic in April 2020, schooling was disrupted for over 1.5 billion learners in more than 190 countries. This unprecedented disruption to education has the potential to roll back substantial gains made on girls’ education inrecent decades, with broader immediate and longer-term effects on the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, including those related to poverty reduction, health and well-being, inclusive quality education and gender equality.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.