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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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2776 - 2790 of 5225
Reimagining youth justice: how the dual crises of COVID-19 and racial injustice inform judicial policymaking and reform

AUTHOR(S)
Alysha Gagnon; Samahria Alpern

Published: July 2021   Journal: Juvenile and Family Court Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic and the rejuvenated movement for racial justice in 2020 have presented an opportunity to reimagine the roles, practices, and policies of juvenile and family court systems actors. In order to capture contemporary ideas about judicial practice and policy reforms, semi-structured interviews were conducted with Hon. Edwina Mendelson, Deputy Chief Administrative Judge for the Office of Justice Initiatives in New York State, and Hon. Steven Teske, Chief Judge of the Juvenile Court of Clayton County, Georgia. These interviews yielded several recommendations for judicial reform in youth justice (e.g., implement court-wide procedural justice practices, improve accessibility using technology). These recommendations can be used by systems actors across the country, particularly those interested in adapting their courtroom practices for a post-pandemic world.
Transitioning to adulthood from residential childcare during COVID-19: Experiences of young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism spectrum disorder in South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Wendy M. Mupaku; Adrian D. van Breda; Berni Kelly

Published: July 2021   Journal: British Journal of Learning Disabilities
This study focuses on young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism who, due to child welfare concerns, have grown up in children's residential care and are now transitioning out of care at the age of 18 years towards young adulthood. This transition is termed “care leaving” and the young people in transition “care leavers”. The care leaving transition can be particularly difficult for young people with intellectual disabilities and/or autism. These challenges can be magnified in a time of a global crisis like COVID-19, which has resulted in countries being on lockdown and care leavers’ transitions being curtailed. Many mental health problems have emerged due to the COVID-19 outbreak and resultant lockdown that may negatively impact on the care leaving transition of young people with intellectual disabilities.
The effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with an eating disorder and identifying factors predicting disordered eating behaviour

AUTHOR(S)
Sinem Akgül; Devrim Akdemir; Kevser Nalbant (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Early Intervention in Psychiatry

This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on adolescents with eating disorders (ED) and identify factors predicting ED behaviour.This study took place during an age-stratified lockdown for those under 20 years in Turkey. Participants completed a survey developed to evaluate the effects of the lockdown on ED behaviour, well-being and quality of life (QoL) and additionally the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), and scales for depression, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive behaviour. The relationship between the EDE-Q-global score and other variables related to ED was examined. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the predictive power of these variables on ED behaviour.

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies started to decline just four months after COVID-19 infection in a paediatric population

AUTHOR(S)
Adin Breuer; Allon Raphael; Hagay Stern (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study evaluated the prevalence of paediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections using antibody testing and characterised antibody titres by time from exposure. This was a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional cohort study. Patients under 18 years old were eligible to participate if they attended the paediatric emergency department at the tertiary Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel, from 18 October 2020 to 12 January 2021 and required blood tests or intravenous access. SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and antibody levels were tested by a dual-assay model.

Educators’ experiences in special education institutions during the COVID-19 outbreak

AUTHOR(S)
Ayse Dilsad Yakut

Published: July 2021   Journal: JORSEN : Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs
The COVID-19 outbreak has had a profound impact on education worldwide. As a result of the educational institutions closures, it is likely that the impact on special education would be more detrimental since special education population becomes more vulnerable in the aftermath of an outbreak. In the scope of this study, a researcher created survey was used to examine educators’ teaching experiences and their perceptions about the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on special education students. The sample included 215 educators working in the Special Education and Rehabilitation Centers (SERCs) in Turkey.
Impact of nonpharmacological COVID-19 interventions in hospitalizations for childhood pneumonia in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
Frederico Friedrich; Laura de Castro e Garcia; Lucas Montiel Petry (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Pediatric Pulmonology

The knowledge about the impact of the nonpharmacological measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic can give insight into ways in which they can also be applied for other respiratory diseases. To assess the impact of containment measures of the COVID-19 pandemic on pneumonia hospitalizations in children from 0 to 14 years of age in Brazil. Data from hospital admissions for pneumonia were obtained from the Department of Informatics of Brazilian Public Health System database in the period of 2015–2020 and analyzed by macroregions and age groups. To evaluate the effect of containment measures, on the incidence of pneumonia, the absolute reduction and relative reduction were calculated by analyzing the subsets 2015-2019 vs. 2020.

Pandemic did not lead to decrease in alcohol and marijuana use by youth

AUTHOR(S)
Gary Enos

Published: July 2021   Journal: Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly
Despite seeing a historic decline in youths' perceived availability of alcohol and marijuana during last year's peak of COVID-19 restrictions, use of these substances did not show a corresponding drop, newly released data indicates. The study's lead author told ADAW that the findings were so surprising to him that he had to set them aside for a time to try to process what he was seeing.
Changes in weight and height among Chinese preschool children during COVID-19 school closures

AUTHOR(S)
Juan Wen; Lijun Zhu; Chenbo Ji

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Obesity

COVID-19-related school closures may increase the prevalence of childhood obesity, which has aroused public concerns. This study aimed to analyze the weight and height changes in Chinese preschool children during the COVID-19-related school closures period. A total of 124,603 children from multi-city kindergartens in China were included in this study. It evaluated the prevalence of overweight and obese in preschool children experienced school closures, and compared the changes in BMI, weight, and height of preschool children among COVID-19 school closures period, the same period last year and the same period the year before last.

Neural responses to social reward predict depressive symptoms in adolescent girls during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Stefanie L. Sequeira; Jennifer S. Silk; Emily Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology

Adolescent depression is increasing during the COVID-19 pandemic, possibly related to dramatic social changes. Individual-level factors that contribute to social functioning, such as temperament and neural reactivity to social feedback, may confer risk for or resilience against depressive symptoms during the pandemic. Ninety-three girls (12–17 years) oversampled for high shy/fearful temperament were recruited from a longitudinal study for a follow-up COVID-19 study. During the parent study (2016–2018), participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task eliciting neural activity to performance-related social feedback. Depressive symptoms were assessed during the parent study and COVID-19 follow-up (April–May 2020).

Children and adolescent mental health in a time of COVID-19: a forgotten priority

AUTHOR(S)
Agnes Binagwaho; Joyeuse Senga

Published: July 2021   Journal: Annals of Global Health
Globally, 10–20% of children and adolescents experience mental health conditions, but most of them do not receive the appropriate care when it is needed. The COVID-19 deaths and prevention measures, such as the lockdowns, economic downturns, and school closures, have affected many communities physically, mentally, and economically and significantly impacted the already-neglected children and adolescents’ mental health. As a result, evidence has shown that many children and adolescents are experiencing psychological effects such as depression and anxiety without adequate support. The consequences of not addressing the mental health conditions in children and adolescents extend through adulthood and restrict them from reaching their full potential. The effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents’ mental health highlight the urgent need for multisectoral home-grown solutions to provide early diagnosis and treatment and educate caregivers on home-based interventions and community outreach initiatives to address children and adolescents’ mental health challenges during this pandemic and beyond.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of data on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19: Clinical presentation, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes based on COVID-19 severity

AUTHOR(S)
Zohra S. Lassi; Ali Ana; Jai K. Das (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Global Health
This study determined the clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 and identified if these are different based on COVID-19 severity. It also included all observational studies on pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 reporting clinical presentation, risk factors, and pregnancy and perinatal outcomes.
Effect of temporary school closure due to COVID-19 on musculoskeletal function in elementary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Ryoichi Nakajima; Hiroshi Kamada; Taishu Kasai (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Rural Medicine
In 2020, coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) became the cause of a pandemic. In response, the Japan Sports Agency issued warnings about secondary damage to health, such as the threat to physical and mental well-being due to the lack of exercise in this situation. This study reports on cross-sectional and longitudinal examinations of standing trunk flexion to evaluate how temporary long-term school closures affected musculoskeletal function in elementary school students.
The Impact of COVID-19 on Anxiety and Worries for Families of Individuals with Special Education Needs and Disabilities in the UK

AUTHOR(S)
V. Sideropoulos; D. Dukes; M. Hanley (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
COVID-19 has affected people across the world. The current study examined anxiety and worries during the first UK national lockdown in March 2020. Parents (n = 402) reported on their own anxiety and worries as well as that of their son/daughter with Special Education Needs and Disabilities (SEND) and typically developing (TD) child (n = 186) at three time points. Although both groups showed increased anxiety across the three time points, levels of anxiety in the SEND group, but not the TD siblings, were predicted by awareness about COVID-19. In addition, worries differed between the groups showing that COVID-19 impacts the wellbeing of those with SEND differently to that of their TD siblings.
Sleep, anxiety, and academic performance: a study of adolescents from public high schools in China

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoning Zhang; Dagmara Dimitriou; Elizabeth J. Halstead

Published: July 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Sleep is essential for optimal learning across the developmental pathways. This study aimed to (1) explore whether school start and end times and screen time influenced sleep disturbances in adolescents during the lockdown in China and (2) investigate if sleep disturbances at night and sleep-related impairment (daytime fatigue) influenced adolescents' academic performance and anxiety levels. Ninety-nine adolescents aged 15–17 years old were recruited from two public schools in Baishan City Jilin Province, China. An online questionnaire was distributed including questions on adolescents' demographics, screen time habits, academic performance, anxiety level, sleep disturbances, and sleep-related impairment.

The perception of Italian pregnant women and new mothers about their psychological wellbeing, lifestyle, delivery, and neonatal management experience during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: a web-based survey

AUTHOR(S)
Viviana Stampini; Alice Monzani; Silvia Caristia (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, drastic measures for social distancing have been introduced also in Italy, likely with a substantial impact in delicate conditions like pregnancy and puerperium. The study aimed to investigate the changes in lifestyle, access to health services, and mental wellbeing during the first Italian lockdown in a sample of Italian pregnant women and new mothers.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Check our quarterly thematic digests on children and COVID-19

Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.