Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Data Must Speak: Unpacking Factors Influencing School Performance in Nepal

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Joint efforts by the Government of Nepal, development partners and key stakeholders to achieve SDG 4 by 2030 have improved education access, participation and retention. However, learning outcomes in Nepal remain stagnant.

What resources and contextual factors are associated with good school performance in Nepal? By merging and analyzing existing administrative datasets in Nepal, this report helps to identify positive deviant schools – those that outperform other schools despite sharing similar contexts and resources.

Data Must Speak – a global initiative implemented since 2014 – aims to address the evidence gaps to mitigate the learning crisis using existing data. The DMS Positive Deviance Research is co-created and co-implemented with Ministries of Education and key partners. DMS research relies on mixed methods and innovative approaches (i.e., positive deviance approach, behavioural sciences, implementation research and scaling science) to generate knowledge and practical lessons about ‘what works’, ‘why’ and ‘how’ to scale grassroots solutions for national policymakers and the broader international community of education stakeholders.

DMS research is currently being implemented in 14 countries: Brazil, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Niger, the United Republic of Tanzania, Togo and Zambia.

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Estimates of internet access for children in Ethiopia, Kenya, Namibia, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs

The COVID-19 pandemic transformed internet connectivity from an important asset to an essential piece of infrastructure. Yet two thirds of the world’s school-aged children still have no fixed internet connection at home. This lack of connectivity limits their ability to go online; prevents them from participating and competing in the modern economy; and risks isolating them from the world.

This research brief presents new data on children’s internet access in five countries in Eastern and Southern Africa. It provides estimates of the frequency with which children use the internet and assesses the most common barriers they face. Finally, it explores the potential consequences of leaving these bottlenecks unaddressed.

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in West and Central Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Ximena Jativa; Despina Karamperidou; Michelle Mills; Stefania Vindrola; Hanna Wedajo; Andrea Dsouza; Jessica Bergmann

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report
Teachers are the most important drivers of students’ academic achievement and they are at the heart of learning recovery efforts. Finding out the bottlenecks and necessary conditions for ensuring teachers’ presence at school and in the classroom is essential. Time to Teach is a mixed methods research initiative that aims to find out the contextual, working conditions and policy factors impeding primary school teacher attendance in 11 West and Central African countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, The Gambia, and Togo. 

The study considers teacher attendance as multi-dimensional, in four distinct forms. Teachers were asked to about their attendance in relation to: (1) being school; (2) being punctual (arriving and leaving on time); (3) being the classroom; and (4) spending sufficient time on task. Evidence is drawn from national, system-wide qualitative data collection and school observations, and a quantitative survey of 1,673 teachers working in 234 purposively selected primary schools. While primary data were collected prior to the COVID-19 school closures (in the 2018/2019 school year), the study provides important insights on how the pandemic has exacerbated chronic challenges of education systems that impact teacher attendance and is therefore informative for policy, both in the current COVID-19 era and beyond.


Cite this publication | No. of pages: 68 | Thematic area: Education, WCARO | Tags: central africa, education, teachers, west africa
Disrupting Harm in Namibia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Disrupting Harm in Namibia: Evidence on online child sexual exploitation and abuse

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

Funded by the Global Partnership to End Violence against Children, through its Safe Online initiative, ECPAT, INTERPOL, and UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti worked in partnership to design and implement Disrupting Harm – a research project on online child sexual exploitation and abuse (OCSEA). This unique partnership brings a multidisciplinary approach to a complex issue in order to see all sides of the problem. OCSEA refers to situations that involve digital or communication technologies at some point during the continuum of abuse or exploitation; it can occur fully online or through a mix of online and in-person interactions between offenders and children. The Disrupting Harm research was conducted in six Southeast Asian countries and seven Eastern and Southern African countries, including Namibia. Data were synthesised from nine different research activities to generate each national report which tells the story of the threat, and presents clear recommendations for action.

Key findings in the Disrupting Harm in Namibia report include:

  • ●  20,000 children experienced clear examples of online sexual exploitation and abuse in the last year alone. This included blackmailing children to engage in sexual activities, sharing their sexual images without permission, or coercing them to engage in sexual activities through promises of money or gifts.
  • ●  30% of children who had experienced abuse online did not disclose their experiences to anyone, citing fear and lack of awareness on whom or where to report to. One child said, “No, I did not [report] because I was afraid. My mom had warned me not to communicate with people I do not know on social media, so I was afraid that she would criticize me for doing that.”
  • ●  11% of children surveyed were subjected to sexual comments online that made them feel uncomfortable in the past year.
  • ●  80% of online sexual abuse and exploitation offenders were someone the child already knew. These were often intimate partners and adult friends and family members. Someone unknown to the child was responsible for about one in four instances of online child sexual exploitation and abuse identified in the household survey. 


For more information, read the Advocacy Brief.

 

Bridging the Digital Literacy Gender Gap in Developing Countries

Bridging the Digital Literacy Gender Gap in Developing Countries

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Subrahmanian; Giacomo Gattorno; Paul Grainger; Alberto Guidi; Shiva Kanwar; Mansi Kedia; Alina Sorgner

Published: 2022 Policy Brief

The record on digital inclusion is clear: women have been left behind. Within certain economies, cultures, and regions, the digital literacy gender gap prevents women from unlocking better learning opportunities and economic prospects. This policy brief measures the relationship between digital literacy gaps and sociocultural factors. It then describes why digital literacy gaps start forming in childhood and how most digital skilling programmes fail to address the obstacles women face in becoming a part of the digital world. It concludes by pinpointing solutions to these issues and urging the G20 and other countries to address the unique challenges of women’s digital literacy. 

 

Réouvrir les écoles avec résilience: Leçons tirées de l’enseignement à distance pendant la COVID-19 en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

Réouvrir les écoles avec résilience: Leçons tirées de l’enseignement à distance pendant la COVID-19 en Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Valenza; Yacouba Dijbo Abdou; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2021 Innocenti Research Report
Les pays d'Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre ont mis en œuvre des mesures nationales pour poursuivre les activités d’apprentissage pendant la fermeture des écoles. Ces mesures reposaient sur une combinaison de modalités de diffusion : des plateformes en ligne, des médias audiovisuels, des téléphones portables et des supports imprimés. Cependant, plusieurs obstacles ont empêché de nombreux enfants et adolescents de la région de profiter de ces opportunités d’apprentissage, dans un contexte où, même avant la pandémie, près de 50 % d’entre eux n'atteignaient pas les compétences minimales en lecture à la fin du cycle primaire. En s’appuyant sur les données régionales disponibles, ce rapport met en évidence les principales leçons à tirer en matière d’apprentissage à distance et fournit des recommandations concrètes pour renforcer la résilience des systèmes éducatifs nationaux face aux fermetures des écoles.
Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

Hacia la reapertura de escuelas más resilientes: Lecciones extraídas del aprendizaje a distancia durante la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe

AUTHOR(S)
Javier Santiago Ortiz Correa; Marco Valenza; Vincenzo Placco; Thomas Dreesen

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

La implementación de la educación a distancia en América Latina y el Caribe, producto del cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19, confirmó que la brecha en el acceso a la electricidad y a la tecnología aún es un obstáculo importante para que los gobiernos de la región puedan atender a todos los niños, niñas y adolescentes. El cierre de las escuelas implica el riesgo de ampliar las brechas de aprendizaje existentes, pues las escuelas privadas estaban más preparadas en cuanto al uso de la tecnología para la educación a distancia. Adicionalmente, los niños, niñas y adolescentes de los hogares más favorecidos recibían más apoyo en casa mientras las escuelas estaban cerradas. Conforme los países de la región reabren las escuelas, es vital que los gobiernos incorporen las principales lecciones aprendidas para mejorar la resiliencia y la equidad de sus sistemas educativos. Este informe presenta evidencias sobre el aprendizaje a distancia durante el cierre de las escuelas debido a la COVID-19 en América Latina y el Caribe para orientar a los tomadores de decisiones en la construcción de sistemas educativos más eficaces, sostenibles y resilientes para las crisis actuales y futuras.

What does SEA-PLM 2019 tell us about child well-being and learning in six Southeast Asian countries?

What does SEA-PLM 2019 tell us about child well-being and learning in six Southeast Asian countries?

AUTHOR(S)
Ximena Jativa; Michelle Mills

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

The COVID-19 pandemic presented an opportunity for governments across Southeast Asia to reshape their approach to education so that children and adolescents are equipped with the necessary academic and socioemotional skills to live a rewarding life. By providing deeper insight into children’s attitudes and values in well-being domains, this report reveals the relationship between children’s well-being and academic learning in the region.

What can policymakers and practitioners do to support children and adolescents to excel now and in the future? Through quantitative analysis of the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metrics 2019 database, along with an investigation of policy implications and promising practices, this report advocates for increased coordination across cross-sectoral government institutions; increased school, parental and community support for children’s development; and providing a platform for children’s voices to understand their perspectives and needs.

Developed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) Office of Research-Innocenti and published by UNICEF East Asia and Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) as its contribution to the SEA-PLM Secretariat.

Eliminating Child Labour: Essential for Human Development and Ensuring Child Well-being

Eliminating Child Labour: Essential for Human Development and Ensuring Child Well-being

Published: 2022 Policy Brief

The brief highlights the interlinkages between child labour and human development and describes how ending economic deprivations, universalizing school education, expanding the coverage and improve the adequacy of social protection systems, and ensuring private sector engagement in protecting child rights can effectively eliminate child labour and promote inclusive growth and development. Evidence-informed, multi-sectoral, scalable solutions are presented that can ensure children are protected from economic exploitation and end the perpetuation of long-term cumulative deprivation. The brief presents actionable policy recommendations for the G20, drawing from the most recent global research and evidence on ending child labour.

 

Key takeways from the report include:

The G20 can commit and lead the way in supporting: 

  • Expansion of child-sensitive social protection;
  • Increased investments in strenghtening the availability and quality of education from foundational through elementary and secondary education;
  • Strategies to end discriminatory social and gender norms;
  • Equitable conditions and standards in the labour market, through collaboration between government regulators and private companies; and
  • Strengthened child protection laws and systems ensuring identification, support, and school re-integration of children in child labour.
  • Investment in research to further improve our understanding of the most promising, effective, and scalable strategies to accelerate results.

 

Accessible Digital Textbooks: Universal Design for Learning in Paraguay

Accessible Digital Textbooks: Universal Design for Learning in Paraguay

AUTHOR(S)
Marta Carnelli; Thomas Dreesen; Claudia Pacheco

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

In the Latin America and Caribbean region, more than 19 million children have a disability. Although school attendance and completion rates have increased steadily over the last 20 years in the region, barriers to access quality education are still too high for children and adolescents with disabilities.

In Paraguay, disability is a major factor associated with school participation and learning levels. The Accessible Digital Textbooks for All (ADT) initiative, implements accessible digital tools and content to make learning accessible to all students - with and without disabilities - in the same classroom.

This report presents the research results of the piloting of an accessible digital textbook for children with and without disabilities in Paraguay. The report provides results across three areas. First, it analyses the familiarity with and ability of teachers and students to interact with technology. Second, it investigates the pedagogical practices used for inclusive education and to integrate the accessible digital textbook as a tool in the classroom by teachers to support inclusion. Third, it presents recommendations for improving the content and interface of the accessible digital textbook.

This study is part of longer-term multi-country research examining the implementation of accessible digital textbooks. Future research will explore the impact of the use of the ADT on student learning on a larger scale.

Making It Count: Strengthening data and evidence to prevent and respond to violence against children in East Asia and the Pacific

Making It Count: Strengthening data and evidence to prevent and respond to violence against children in East Asia and the Pacific

AUTHOR(S)
Ramya Subrahmanian; Manahil Siddiqi; Nicole Petrowski; Claudia Cappa

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Briefs

This brief provides an overview of the data and evidence gaps on violence against children in East Asia and the Pacific. It calls for greater attention to generating, sharing and applying quality data and evidence to protect the safety and rights of children within the region.

Monitoring the Social Costs of Climate Change for Low- and Middle-income Countries

Monitoring the Social Costs of Climate Change for Low- and Middle-income Countries

Published: 2022 Innocenti Research Report

This policy brief is the third in a series that assesses key issues affecting social spending as part of UNICEF’s work on Public Finance for Children.

It aims to add to the understanding on of what climate change means for social sector budgets, and the extent to which social sectors are being prioritized in the climate response.

 Social sectors face rising climate-related costs but positive opportunities to raise the required additional financing required remain. These include: leveraging green technologies; reforming energy subsidies and harnessing green financing initiatives.   

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