Forced or compulsory labour is work or service involuntarily exacted from adults or children under the menace of any penalty. Article 32 of the CRC dealing with protection against economic exploitation and Article 36 dealing with protection against all forms of exploitation can be invoked. Military service is generally excluded under international law from constituting forced labour. Relevant provisions of international instruments include: Article 8(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966); Article 6(2) of the American Convention on Human Rights (1969); Article 4(2) of the European Convention on Human Rights (1950); Article 5 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (1981); and Article 2(a) of the ILO Convention No. 105 Concerning the Abolition of Forced Labour (1957). Consider also the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (1956).
Bonded labour Child labour Economic exploitation Exploitation Slavery