Care of children
CRC Article = 3(2); 18(2)
Article 3(2) of the CRC obligates States Parties to ensure the child such care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her. In addition, under Article 18(2), States Parties are required to ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.
Child-care Protection of children Standards of care
Child health and nutrition
CRC Article = 24(2)(e)
For the implementation of the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to health services, States Parties are required to ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition.
Adequate nutrition Breast-feeding Health and health services Health education Malnutrition
CRC Article = 32
There is no precise definition of child labour, as it is a term covering many diverse situations. Child labour can be divided into six categories: domestic, non-domestic, non-monetary, bonded labour, wage labour and marginal economic activity. According to the ILO, in developing countries the most important method for ensuring that children under the age of 12 years are not working is the accessibility of primary education. Article 32 of the CRC deals with the right of the child to protection against economic exploitation. In addition, it deals with the right to be protected from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. The term "work" is broader than employment, the latter implying some form of contractual or formal status. States Parties are required to take appropriate measures for the implementation of the rights set forth in Article 32. In particular, they are required to provide for: a minimum age or minimum age(s) for admission to employment; appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment; and appropriate sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the provisions of Article 32. There are 27 ILO Conventions and 14 ILO Recommendations relevant to the employment of children. Of particular relevance to the implementation of Article 32 are ILO Convention No. 138 Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973) and ILO Recommendation No. 146 concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973).
Bonded labour Conditions of employment Economic exploitation Enforcement of child labour standards Exploitation Forced labour Harmful work Hazardous work Hours of employment Minimum age(s) for admission to employment Slavery Trade unions
Child marriage and the betrothal of boys and girls are not explicitly dealt with in the CRC. However, Article 24(3) of the CRC obligates States Parties to take all effective and appropriate measures to abolish traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children, and Article 36 deals with the right of the child to protection against all forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare. Noteworthy is that Article 21(2) of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990) obligates States Parties to prohibit child marriage and the betrothal of boys and girls and to take effective action, including legislation, to specify the minimum age of marriage to be 18 years and to make registration of all marriages in an official registry compulsory. The Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages (1962), Articles 1(c)(d) and 2 of the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery (1956) and Article 23(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) obligate States Parties to specify a minimum age for marriage and/or prohibit marriages which are entered into without the free and full consent of both parties. Consider also the Recommendation on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1965.
CRC Article = 24(2)(a)
For the implementation of the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to health services, States Parties are required to take appropriate measures to diminish child mortality.
Health and health services Infant mortality